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Table 1 Recurrence risk (λ R ) to relatives (of type R) for several common complex genetic diseases ordered by prevalence (K)

From: Multi-locus models of genetic risk of disease

Disease Reference K λ MZ a λ Sib b λ OP d e f g
Major depression (population cohort) [27] 0.24 2 1.3   0.32   3.3 1.2 0.34
Age related macular degeneration [28, 29] 0.12 4.7 2.1   0.50   3.4 1.1 0.64
Myocardial infarction [30] 0.056 4.6 3.2   0.21   1.6 0.4 0.72
Breast cancer [31] 0.036 4.1 2.2 1.9 0.12 1.3 2.6 0.8 0.37
Type II diabetes [32] 0.028 10.4 3.5   0.27   3.8 0.8 0.58
Asthma [33] 0.019 6.6 3.4   0.11   2.3 0.6 0.49
Rheumatoid arthritis [34] 0.01 12.2 3.6   0.11   4.3 0.9 0.42
Bipolar disorder [5] 0.01 60 7 7 0.60 1.0 10 1.2 0.70
Schizophrenia [3] 0.0085 52.1 8.6 10 0.44 0.8 6.7 0.7 0.76
Type I diabetes [35] 0.005 79 14   0.39   6.0 0.4 0.85
Multiple sclerosis [36] 0.001 190 20   0.19 ~1 9.9 0.5 0.68
Crohn's disease [37] 0.001 600 64   0.60   10 0.1 1.00
Ankylosis spondylitis [6] 0.001 630 82 79 0.63 1.0 7.8 0.1 1.00
Systemic lupus erythematosus [38] 0.001   29 27   1.1    0.80
  [39, 40] 0.0003 774 65   0.24   12 0.2 0.84
  1. aThe maximum prevalence for K MZ is 1, so λ MZ = K MZ /K is constrained to be ≤1/K. λ MZ was calculated from probandwise concordance rates K MZ and prevalence rates if λ MZ was not directly reported. bEstimated from either sibling, dizygotic twin or first degree relative risks. c broad sense heritability on the risk scale (Equation 1). dThis ratio is expected to be 1 in the absence of dominance effects on the risk scale. eThis ratio is expected to be 2 under an additive model on the risk scale. fThis ratio is expected to be 1 under the unconstrained Risch model. gCalculated from the estimates of K and λ Sib [41, 42], constrained to a maximum of 1.