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Table 1 The main morphological, clinical, cytogenetic and molecular genetic characteristics, and treatment options, in the major myeloid malignancies

From: Clinical proteomics of myeloid leukemia

Characteristics/treatment options CML CMML APL AML
Morphological characteristics Proliferation of mature granulocytes and precursors Proliferation of monocytes, also dysplasia in other cell lineages Accumulation of promyelocytes Accumulation of immature myeloid cells
Clinical characteristics Mild symptoms (malaise, low fever), often asymptomatic; slow progression of disease Bone marrow failure; often general symptoms: weight loss, night sweats Often severe bone marrow failure (anemia, infection, bleeding) often coagulopathy; aggressive disease Often severe bone marrow failure (anemia, infection, bleeding); aggressive disease
Cytogenetic characteristics Reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 t(9;22) Several described; could also be normal (60% to 70%) Balances reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 t(15;17) Several described; could also be normal (45%)
Molecular genetic characteristics Probably important in disease development and resistance to TKIs Several described; RAS family (N-RAS/K-RAS) seems of special interest None recognized Several discovered (Table 2), important in risk stratification
Main treatment options First- and second-generation TKIs, allo-SCT Chemotherapeutics, 5-azacitidine, allo-SCT ATRA, arsenic trioxide, chemotherapeutics, allo-SCT Chemotherapeutics, allo-SCT
  1. allo-SCT, allogenic stem cell transplantation; AML, acute myeloid leukemia; APL, acute promyelocytic leukemia; ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; CML, chronic myeloid leukemia; CMML, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia; TKI, tyrosine kinase inhibitor.