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Table 1 Host genetic factors that affect treatment outcome

From: Prospects for personalizing antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus with pharmacogenetics

Gene symbol Gene name/description Polymorphism Effect on treatment Reference(s)
IFNλ     
   IL28B Interferon, λ3 SNP rs12979860 (C/C) Twofold increased rate of SVR [20]
   IL28B Interferon, λ3 SNPs rs8099917 (G) and rs12980275 Associated with non-response [22]
   IL28B Interferon, λ3 SNP rs809917 (T) Twofold increased rate of SVR [21]
Side-effect modulator     
   ITPA Inosine triphosphatase SNPs rs1127354 (A) and rs7270101 (C) Increased protection against ribavirin-induced anemia [3538]
HLA alleles     
   HLA-A24-B54-DR4 HLA class I/II haplotype NA Associated with non-response [73]
   HLA-B54 HLA class I allele NA Associated with non-response [73]
   HLA-DRB1*0404 HLA class II allele NA Associated with response [74]
   HLA-DRB1*0701, -DRA1*0201, -DQB1*02 HLA class II haplotype NA Associated with response [75]
   HLA-A11, -B51, -CW5 and -DRB1*15 HLA class I and II alleles NA Associated with response [76]
   HLA-A24 HLA class I allele NA Associated with non-response [76]
   HLA-DRB1*04 HLA class II allele NA Associated with non-response to IFN monotherapy [77]
   HLA-DRB1*07 HLA class II allele NA Associated with response [78]
   HLA-A33 HLA class I allele NA Associated with response [79]
   HLA-DRB1*07 HLA class II allele NA Associated with non-response [80]
   HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*0301 HLA class II alleles NA Associated with response [80]
   HLA-A24, -B40 -B46 HLA class II alleles NA Associated with response [81]
Other immune-related genes     
   KIR2DL5 Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor NA Associated with non-response [82]
   IL6 Interleukin 6 IL6 C174G Associated with response [83]
   IL10 Interleukin 10 IL10 -592A and -819T Associated with response [84, 85]
   IL12B Interleukin 2B IL12B 3'-UTR 1188C Associated with response [86]
   MXA Interferon-inducible protein MXA -88G and -123A Response to IFN monotherapy [87]
   CCR5 Chemokine receptor 5 CCR5 -Δ32 Associated with non-response to IFN monotherapy [88]
   CCL5 Chemokine ligand 5, RANTES CCL5 Int1.1C and 3' 222C Associated with non-response [89]
   TGFβ Transforming growth factor β TGFβ 10T/T, 25G/G and 10T/C, 25 G/G High producer TGFβ genotype associated with response [90]
   TNFα Tumor necrosis factor α TNFα -308A Associated with response [91]
   IFNγ Interferon γ IFNγ -764G Associated with response [92]
   OPN Osteopontin OPN -1748G/G or G/A OPN -443 T/T Associated with response [93]
   GNB3 Guanine nucleotide-binding protein β polypeptide 3 GNB3 825 C/C Associated with non-response [94, 95]
   CTLA4 Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein, T-cell inhibition CTLA4 -318C -49G haplotype Associated with response [96, 97]
  1. HLA, human leukocyte antigen; IFN, interferon; NA, not applicable; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; SVR, sustained viral response; UTR, untranslated region.