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Table 1 Reporting recommendations for evaluation of risk prediction models that include genetic variants

From: Strengthening the reporting of genetic risk prediction studies: the GRIPS statement

Title and abstract 1 (a) Identify the article as a study of risk prediction using genetic factors. (b) Use recommended keywords in the abstract: genetic or genomic, risk, prediction
   Background and rationale 2 Explain the scientific background and rationale for the prediction study
   Objectives 3 Specify the study objectives and state the specific model(s) that is/are investigated. State if the study concerns the development of the model(s), a validation effort, or both
   Study design and setting 4* Specify the key elements of the study design and describe the setting, locations, and relevant dates, including periods of recruitment, follow-up, and data collection
   Participants 5* Describe eligibility criteria for participants, and sources and methods of selection of participants
   Variables: definition 6* Clearly define all participant characteristics, risk factors and outcomes. Clearly define genetic variants using a widely used nomenclature system
   Variables: assessment 7* (a) Describe sources of data and details of methods of assessment (measurement) for each variable. (b) Give a detailed description of genotyping and other laboratory methods
   Variables: coding 8 (a) Describe how genetic variants were handled in the analyses. (b) Explain how other quantitative variables were handled in the analyses. If applicable, describe which groupings were chosen, and why
   Analysis: risk model construction 9 Specify the procedure and data used for the derivation of the risk model. Specify which candidate variables were initially examined or considered for inclusion in models. Include details of any variable selection procedures and other model-building issues. Specify the horizon of risk prediction (for example, 5-year risk)
   Analysis: validation 10 Specify the procedure and data used for the validation of the risk model
   Analysis: missing data 11 Specify how missing data were handled
   Analysis: statistical methods 12 Specify all measures used for the evaluation of the risk model, including, but not limited to, measures of model fit and predictive ability
   Analysis: other 13 Describe all subgroups, interactions, and exploratory analyses that were examined
   Participants 14* Report the numbers of individuals at each stage of the study. Give reasons for non-participation at each stage. Report the number of participants not genotyped, and reasons why they were not genotyped
   Descriptives: population 15* Report demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population, including risk factors used in the risk modeling
   Descriptives: model estimates 16 Report unadjusted associations between the variables in the risk model(s) and the outcome. Report adjusted estimates and their precision from the full risk model(s) for each variable
   Risk distributions 17* Report distributions of predicted risks and/or risk scores
   Assessment 18 Report measures of model fit and predictive ability, and any other performance measures, if pertinent
   Validation 19 Report any validation of the risk model(s)
   Other analyses 20 Present results of any subgroup, interaction, or exploratory analyses, whenever pertinent
   Limitations 21 Discuss limitations and assumptions of the study, particularly those concerning study design, selection of participants, and measurements and analyses, and discuss their impact on the results of the study
   Interpretation 22 Give an overall interpretation of results considering objectives, limitations, multiplicity of analyses, results from similar studies, and other relevant evidence
   Generalizability 23 Discuss the generalizability and, if pertinent, the health care relevance of the study results
   Supplementary information 24 State whether databases for the analyzed data, risk models, and/or protocols are or will become publicly available and, if so, how they can be accessed
   Funding 25 Give the source of funding and the role of the funders for the present study. State whether there are any conflicts of interest
  1. Items marked with an asterisk should be reported for every population in the study.