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Table 1 Characteristics and treatment modalities of different forms of diabetes mellitus

From: Inherited destiny? Genetics and gestational diabetes mellitus

  Characteristics Treatment modalities
MODY A series of autosomal dominant forms of diabetes. Mutations in genes predisposing to six different forms of MODY have been identified. MODY2, which results from mutations in glucokinase (GCK), is unique among MODYs in that it results in modest hyperglycemia that does not require pharmacological intervention. MODY is characterized by β-cell dysfunction in the absences of insulin resistance or obesity MODY1, MODY3 and MODY4 are typically treated by oral hypoglycemics. MODY5 and MODY6 are typically treated using insulin therapy. MODY2 can be managed by lifestyle modification alone
GDM Hyperglycemia that presents during pregnancy and typically resolves itself post-partum. GDM is characterized by insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Women with previous GDM are at high risk for future T2DM Lifestyle modification is the first choice to manage GDM. However, if glycemic control cannot be achieved, then pharmacological intervention, primarily insulin therapy, can be implemented
T2DM The predominant form of diabetes characterized by insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, typically accompanied by obesity Lifestyle modification is recommended in all cases, but in most circumstances pharmacological intervention is required. Choice of therapies includes oral hypoglycemics, metformin, thiazolidinediones, GLP1 mimetics, and DPP-IV inhibitors. Combination therapy has also become more common in the management of T2DM