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Table 2 Description of metabolite clusters obtained from lipidomic (LC) or metabolomics (MC) platforms

From: Metabolome in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a general population-based study

Cluster name Cluster size Description Examples of metabolites Significant predictors
LC1 112 Major phospholipids, such as PC, lysoPC, SM lysoPC(16:0), PC(34:2), SM(d18:1/16:0) None
LC2 48 Mainly PUFA-containing PCs PC(16:1/22:6), PC(18:1/20:4) None
LC3 11 PUFA-containing PCs and PEs PE(16:0/22:6), PC(18:0/22:6) None
LC4 15 Short chain saturated TGs TG(44:0), TG(16:0/16:0/16:0) Schizophrenia (↑, t = 3.72, P = 0.0003), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 6.00, P < 0.0001), daily use of cheese with high fat content (↑, t = 2.45, P = 0.016)
LC5 31 Mainly unidentified, includes short odd-chain TG TG(43:0) Schizophrenia (↑, t = 2.03, P = 0.045), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 3.09, P = 0.003)
LC6 21 Odd-chain TGs, mainly saturated or monounsaturated TG(47:0), TG(47:1) Schizophrenia (↑, t = 2.27, P = 0.025), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 4.14, P < 0.0001), daily use of cheese with high fat content (↑, t = 2.29, P = 0.024)
LC7 20 Mainly odd-chain TGs, longer fatty acids than LC5 and LC6 TG(15:0/16:0/18:1), TG(51:2), TG(50:2), TG(16:0/16:0/18:1) Schizophrenia (↑, t = 3.20, P = 0.002), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 7.99, P < 0.0001), daily use of cheese with high fat content (↑, t = 2.06, P = 0.042)
LC8 34 Medium- and long-chain TGs TG(18:1/16:0/18:1), TG(18:1/16:0/18:2), TG(18:1/18:1/18:1), TG(18:1/18:2/18:1) Schizophrenia (↑, t = 3.08, P = 0.003), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 7.04, P < 0.0001)
LC9 17 Longer-chain, SFA- and MUFA-containing TGs TG(18:0/18:0/18:1), TG(18:1/18:0/18:1), TG(18:0/18:0/16:0) Schizophrenia (↑, t = 4.23, P < 0.0001), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 6.72, P < 0.0001), daily use of cheese with high fat content (↑, t = 2.93, P = 0.004), fasting time (↓, t = -1.98, P = 0.050)
LC10 21 PUFA containing long-chain TGs TG(16:0/18:1/22:6), TG(56:8), TG(16:0/16:1/22:6), TG(58:9) Metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 5.28, P < 0.0001)
LC11 9 Unknown lipids   Use of vegetable oils (↓, t = -2.61, P = 0.010), fasting time (↓, t = -2.06, P = 0.041)
LC12 7 Unknown lipids   Use of vegetable oils (↓, t = -2.24, P = 0.027)
LC13 5 Unknown lipids   None
MC1 34 Sugars, sugar acids, urea metabolites Allonic acid, myo-inositol, glycopyranose, urea Metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 3.10, P = 0.002), fasting time (↓, t = -2.46, P = 0.015)
MC2 18 Ketone bodies, free fatty acids Acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, stearic acid, oleic acid Schizophrenia (↓, t = -2.68, P = 0.009), affective psychosis (↓, t = -2.79, P = 0.006), antipsychotic use (↑, t = 2.45, P = 0.016)
MC3 10 Branched chain amino acids and other amino acids Isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, ornithine, serine, methionine, threonine Schizophrenia (↑, t = 2.03, P = 0.045)
MC4 53 Energy metabolites, various organic acids Hippuric acid, glycine, succinic acid, fumaric acid, alpha-linolenic acid, adipic acid Antipsychotic use (↓, t = -2.16, P = 0.033)
MC5 38 Amino acids, organic acids Proline, glutamic acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, pyruvic acid, alanine, lactic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyrate Schizophrenia (↑, t = 2.35, P = 0.020), metabolic comorbidity (↑, t = 5.19, P < 0.0001), fasting time (↓, t = -2.34, P = 0.021)
MC6 25 Various organic acids Arachidonic acid, aminomalonic acid, citric acid None
MC7 17 Mainly unidentified carboxylic acids and alcohols Beta-sitosterol None
MC8 6 Lipid metabolites 2-Monopalmitin None
  1. The rightmost column shows the results from linear mixed models, with diagnostic categories, current antipsychotic medication use, metabolic comorbidity (that is, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity (body mass index ≥30)), diet (use of vegetable oil versus butter, use of milk and cheese with high fat content, daily use of vegetables) and hours of fasting. Abbreviations: lysoPC, lysophosphatidylcholine; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acid; PC, phosphatidylcholine, PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid; SFA, saturated fatty acid; SM, sphingomyelin; TG, triglyceride.