Skip to main content

Table 2 Chromatin signatures defining different classes of regulatory elements

From: Epigenomics of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells: insights into pluripotency and implications for disease

Regulatory element Chromatin signature Cell type References
Active promoters Main: H3K4me3/2. Additional: H3ac, H4ac General [42, 56, 63, 64, 79]
Poised promoters (bivalent) Main: H3K4me3/2, H3K27me3. Additional: H2AZ, MacroH2A More prevalent in ESCs/iPSCs [42, 56, 59]
Inactive promoters (CpG island-poor) meC General [41, 68, 70]
Active enhancers Presence: p300, H3K4me1/2, H3K27ac. Absence: H3K4me3, H3K27me3 General [63, 64, 79]
Poised enhancers Presence: p300, H3K4me1/2, H3K27me3. Absence: H3K4me3, H3K27ac Prevalent in hESCs [66, 67]
Insulators CTCF General [105]
Long non-coding RNAs promoter: H3K4me3. Gene body: H3K36me3 General [104]
  1. ESC, embryonic stem cell; CTCF, CCCTC-binding factor, insulator associated protein; hESC, human embryonic stem cell; iPSC, induced pluripotent stem cell; H2AZ, histone variant H2AZ; H3ac, acetylation of histone H3; H4ac, acetylation of histone H4; H3K4me1/2/3, (mono-, di- and tri) methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3; H3K27ac, acetylation of lysine 27 of histone H3; H3K27me3, trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3; H3K36me3, trimethylation of lysine 36 of histone H3; MacroH2A, histone variant MacroH2A; meC, methylcytosine.