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Table 2 FDA-approved biomarkers

From: Biomarkers in solid organ transplantation: establishing personalized transplantation medicine

Organ Sample Proposed mechanism Biomarker References
Heart Blood (PBMCs, mRNA) Gene-expression-based diagnostic score distinguishes stable from acute heart allograft rejection patients and mild from severe AR AlloMap
(11-gene panel)
[92, 93]
Heart, liver, lung, kidney Serum (protein) T-cell activation status indicates risk of AR, under-/over-immunosuppression ImmuKnow (T-cell-stimulation-dependent iATP levels) [18, 97100]