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Table 1 Patient characteristics in genetic sub-study participants versus non-participants

From: Factors influencing patient willingness to participate in genetic research after a myocardial infarction

  Consented to use of DNA  
  Yes (n = 3,484) No (n = 856) P-value
Demographics    
   Age 58.9 ± 12.2 59.8 ± 12.7 0.038
   White/Caucasian race 2,342 (67.4%) 573 (67.3%) 0.981
   Male 2,347 (67.4%) 551 (64.4) 0.095
   Language    0.293
English 3,353 (98.4%) 823 (97.9%)  
Spanish 55 (1.6%) 18 (2.1%)  
Missing 76 15  
   Ethnicity    0.870
Hispanic/latino 217 (6.4%) 54 (6.6%)  
Non-hispanic/latino 3,175 (93.6%) 770 (93.4%)  
Unknown 92 32  
   Low social support 612 (18.3%) 109 (13.1%) < 0.001
Missing 133 23  
   REALM-R score ≤ 6 844 (28.5%) 170 (28.1%) 0.823
   NA, missing, or unknown 423 250  
Socio-economic status    
   Completed high school 2,764 (79.8%) 656 (76.9%) 0.058
   History of avoiding medical care due to cost 904 (26.5%) 184 (21.7%) 0.004
   End-of-month financial situation    <0.001
Some money left over 1,380 (40.4%) 397 (47.3%)  
Just enough to make ends meet 1,297 (37.9%) 295 (35.1%)  
Not enough to make ends meet 741 (21.7%) 148 (17.6%)  
Medical history    
   BMI 29.8 ± 10.2 29.0 ± 6.5 0.025
   Chronic heart failure 302 (8.7%) 70 (8.2%) 0.646
   Dyslipidemia 1,721 (49.4%) 407 (47.5%) 0.332
   Hypertension 2,318 (66.5%) 575 (67.2%) 0.722
   Prior MI 710 (20.4%) 202 (23.6%) 0.038
   Cancer 250 (7.2%) 62 (7.2%) 0.946
   Diabetes 1,068 (30.7%) 268 (31.3%) 0.710
Presentation    
   Final MI diagnosis    0.568
   STEMI 1,475 (42.3%) 383 (44.7%)  
   NSTEMI 1,979 (56.8%) 465 (54.3%)  
   BBB/uncertain type 7 (0.2%) 2 (0.2%)  
   Patient not diagnosed with MI 23 (0.7%) 6 (0.7%)  
   Peak troponin 29.3 ± 76.6 25.6 ± 58.1 0.187
Medications (arrival and discharge)    
   Aspirin on arrival 1,431 (41.1%) 353 (41.2%) 0.930
   Beta blocker at DC 3,109 (89.7%) 776 (91.4%) 0.132
   Thienopyridine on Arrival 433 (12.4%) 113 (13.2%) 0.541
   Statin at DC 3,030 (87.4%) 744 (87.6%) 0.852
Processes of care    
   In-hospital cardiac catheterization 3,222 (92.5%) 777 (90.8%) 0.096
   In-hospital revascularization 2,498 (71.7%) 618 (72.2%) 0.772
   Enrolled in other study 326 (9.4%) 70 (8.2%) 0.283
   Length of stay 5.6 ± 6.4 6.0 ± 8.90 0.207
Health Status    
   SAQ Quality of Life score 62.2 ± 23.6 67.5 ± 23.3 < 0.001
   SAQ Angina Stability score 43.8 ± 21.8 47.1 ± 20.6 < 0.001
   SAQ Physical Limitation score 85.0 ± 22.6 88.4 ± 19.6 < 0.001
   SF-12v2 Mental Component score 49.6 ± 11.5 50.0 ± 11.6 0.411
   SF-12v2 Physical Component score 42.0 ± 12.4 42.8 ± 12.5 0.094
   PHQ-9 depression severity    <0.001
Not clinically depressed 1,763 (54.4%) 539 (65.7%)  
Mild depression 831 (25.6%) 170 (20.7%)  
Moderate depression 376 (11.6%) 72 (8.8%)  
Moderately severe depression 191 (5.9%) 27 (3.3%)  
Severe depression 81 (2.5%) 12 (1.5%)  
Missing 242 36  
GRACE 6 m Mortality Risk score 100.0 ± 29.81 103.0 ± 31.1 0.008
  1. Baseline patient characteristics are listed in the left-most column, with the quantities for those that participated in the genetic study, those that did not, and the P-value for difference between the two in the subsequent three columns. Categorical variables are shown as the number of subjects with that characteristic, followed by the proportion this represents (percentage) in parentheses. For variables that have subcategories, each subcategory and the number and proportion of subjects in that group is shown. Continuous variables are shown as the mean ± the standard deviation. Categorical variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test. BBB, bundle branch block; BMI, body mass index; DC,; GRACE, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events; NA, not applicable; NSTEMI, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; PHQ, Patient Health Questionnaire; SAQ, Seattle Angina Questionaire; SF, Short Form; STEMI, ST elevation myocardial infarction.