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Table 3 Proteomic approaches for C. burnetii biomarker selection

From: Proteomics paves the way for Q fever diagnostics



Cbisolates (culture method*)



Identified proteins




Detection of specific markers for Cb isolates


Cb: RSA493, BUD, Priscilla (CYSEE)


Optimization of method for typing Cb for specific strains or clinical isolates

RSA493-specific: CBU_1637, CBU_0401, CBU_0394, CBU_1592, CBU_1378, CBU_0403, CBU_0078, CBU_0961, CBU_1698, CBU_0644, CBU_1055 Priscilla-specific: CBU_0149, CBU_0438, CBU_0168, CBU_0745 BUD-specific: CBU_1989, CBU_2085

[20, 54]

Identification of Cb strains and isolates


Cb: NMI, Australian QD, M44, KAV, PAV, Henzerling, Ohio (CYSEE)


Cb isolate typing or diagnosis

Mass spectral peaks (1000-6000 Da), species-selective and strain-specific


Proteome of Cb NM I


TPE Cb RSA493, NM I (CC)


Markers of early stage infection, and therapeutic or vaccine development

197 distinct proteins. Vir and Strep: CBU_0691, CBU_0683 SP: CBU_0091, CBU_0109, CBU_0395, CBU_0867, CBU_1221, CBU_1268, CBU_1718, CBU_1910


In silico prediction of OMPs and identification of Cb (NM I) LP


Cb RSA493 genome sequence


Vaccine development or serodiagnosis

21 predicted OMPs and 9 LP; LP: CBU_1190 (LolA), CBU_1829 (LolB)


Proteome of Cb strain NM phase II

2-DE, 2D SDS-tricine PAGE, MALDI-TOF

TPE Cb NM II (CC, Vero)


Markers of active Cb infection, serology or therapeutic development

Proteins involved in Cb pathogenesis and survival mechanisms (NM II)


Proteome of Cb I and II


Cb NM I and II (CYSEE)


Phase I and phase II distinct biomarkers, serology or biotyping (blood transfusion)

150 proteins reported (pI > 9. 5); virulence type I and T4SS: CBU_0884, CBU_0085, CBU_0318, CBU_0744, CBU_1099, CBU_1352, CBU_0338, DotD protein (CBU_1643); Anks: CBU_0898, CBU_1482; 7 enzymes involved in LPS phase I synthesis: CBU_0676, CBU_0678, CBU_0674, CBU_0681, CBU_0682, CBU_0683, CBU_0691, CBU_0846, CBU_1657


Cb secretome

Tricine-SDS PAGE, ESI-MS/MS, bioinformatics

Cb NM II (CC, Vero)

Cytoplasmic fraction from infected Vero cells

Characterization of T4SS, drug development

50 T4SS effector candidates: CBU_1440, CBU_0312, CBU_1091, CBU_1386, CBU_1518, Orf145, QpH1_p21, CBU_1297, CburD_01001397


Two Cb strains, subproteome (OMPs) and candidate proteins for serodiagnosis

Tris-Tricine SDS-PAGE, doubled SDS-PAGE, IP 2-DE, MALDI TOF/TOF

Cb strains NM RSA 493 II (acute) and CbuG_Q212 II (chronic), (CC, Vero)

OMP-enriched fraction, 1 HS (chronic)

Subproteome of Cb, chronic Q fever markers

86 identified OMPs. SP: htpB, CBU_0236, CBU_0263, CBU_1471, CBU_0572, CBU_0235, CBU_1916, CBU_0612, CBU_0937


Immunoproteomics or serology


Candidate proteins for acute Q fever serodiagnosis


17 Cb strains (CC) (BGM or L929)

RP ada (rada), AS immunized with rada

Marker of acute Q fever

adaA (CBU_0952)

[31, 63]

Identification of Cb cell-variant-specific common SCV/LCV proteins


Purified SCVs and LCVs

HS (convalescent-phase, acute Q fever), AS from infected or vaccinated guinea pigs

Subunit vaccines or serodiagnostics for acute Q fever, unique SCV/LCV markers

Proteins that are differentially expressed in SCV and LCV forms. SP: CBU_1718, CBU_0236, CBU_0229, CBU_1943, CBU_1416, CBU_0952, CBU_0963, CBU_0737, CBU_0497, CBU_1200


SP for serodiagnosis of Q fever endocarditis


TPE Cb NM II (CC, Vero)

HS (acute Q fever or IE Q fever)

Markers of chronic Q fever (IE), serodiagnosis

CBU_0612, CBU_0480


Identification of Cb proteins reacting with Cb mAbs


TPE Cb NM II (CC, Vero)

Specific mAbs; HS acute or chronic (IE)

Markers of chronic Q fever (IE), serodiagnosis

Q fever markers (general): CBU_1910, CBU_0236 Chronic Q fever marker (IE): CBU_0937


SP for early serodiagnosis of Q fever

IP (2-DE, LC-MS/MS) (pH 5-8, pH 3-10; phase I and phase II antigens )

TPE Cb NM I and II (CC, L929), Cb NM RSA493 I (CYSEE)

AS from immunized guinea pigs

Markers of early stage acute Q fever, serodiagnosis or vaccine development

Phase-I-specific SP: CBU_1706, CBU_12190, CBU_0495, CBU_0780, CBU_0955, Phase-II-specific SP: CBU_1290, CBU_0235, CBU_0215, CBU_0572, CBU_1398, CBU_0236, CBU_0092, CBU_1241, CBU_1396, CBU_1227, CBU_0481, CBU_0299, CBU_0481, CBU_0495, CBU_0482, CBU_0937, CBU_0236


RP-based approaches


Candidate RPs for Q fever vaccine development and serodiagnosis

TAP products and expression of selected SP


HS (acute, chronic phase vaccine)

Serodiagnosis or vaccine development

SP: CBU_0008, CBU_0381, CBU_0612, CBU_0781, CBU_1115, CBU_1143, CBU_1157, CBU_1249, CBU_1853, CBU_1869 Top candidates: CBU_0781 (AnkG), CBU_1115 (lipoprotein), CBU_1143 (YajC)


Candidate RPs for Q fever vaccine development and serodiagnosis

Protein microarray


HS Q fever (general)

Markers of Q fever (general)

SP: CBU_1910, CBU_0891, CBU_0109, CBU_1143, CBU_0612, CBU_0092, CBU_0545, CBU_1398, CBU_0630, CBU_1513, CBU_1719, CBU_0229, CBU_0653


Candidate RPs for Q fever vaccine development and serodiagnosis


11 RPs, Cb NM RSA493 I

HS Q-fever (IFA-positive, convalescent), HS chronic (transgenic mice, immunized with Cb NM RSA493 I)

Subunit vaccine development, serodiagnosis

SP: CBU_1910, CBU_1716, CBU_612, CBU_718, CBU_311


Identification of Cb SP

IP (2D, LC-MS), tripartite fusion RP

TPE Cb (I and II Henzerling strain) (CC, Vero)

HS Q fever (general)

Serodiagnosis or vaccine development

SP: CBU_0091, CBU_0109, CBU_0395, CBU_0867, CBU_1221, CBU_1268, CBU_1718, CBU_1910 Six RP(Cb II): GroEL, Com1, RecA, EF-Tu, OmpA-like and FtsZ


  1. I, phase I; II, phase II; adaA, acute disease antigen A; AS, animal sera; Cb, Coxiella burnetii; IE, infective endocarditis; HS, human sera; IP, immunoproteomics; LP, lipoproteins; MAb, monoclonal antibody; MW, molecular weight; nanoLC-ESI MS/MS, nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; NM, Nine Mile; OM, outer membrane; OMP, outer membrane protein; RP, recombinant protein; SP, seroreactive proteins; TAP products, transcriptionally active PCR products, TPE, total protein extract; Vir and Strep: synthesis of virenose and streptose.
  2. *CYSEE, cultured on yolk sacs in embryonated eggs; CC, cultured in cell lines.