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Table 1 Radiotherapy toxicity

From: Genetics and genomics of radiotherapy toxicity: towards prediction

Site/tissue Acute Late
Skin Erythema, dry skin, desquamation, transient hair loss, dermatitis, pain Subcutaneous fibrosis (induration/hardening), dry skin (loss of sweat glands), atrophy (thinning), dyskeratosis, telangiectasia (blood vessel damage), permanent hair loss, pigmentation, ulceration (necrosis)
Central nervous system Tiredness, nausea, edema, transient radiation myelitis with numbness, paresthesia and 'electric-shock'-like sensation often precipitated by neck flexion (Lhermitte's syndrome) Fibrosis, demyelination, vascular damage, necrosis, cognitive decline, hearing loss, hypopituitarism, myelopathy, paralysis
Head and neck Erythema, edema, oral mucositis, pain Fibrosis, telangiectasia, dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, osteo-radionecrosis, cartilage necrosis
Eye Local irritation, watery eyes (increased lacrimation) Cataract formation, dry eyes (xerophthalmia), weeping eye (epiphora) due to impaired lacrimal drainage, impairment of corneal sensation leading to damage, corneal ulceration and corneal keratinization, retinal hemorrhage, exudate and degeneration, optic atrophy
Esophagus/stomach Mucositis, dysphagia, gastritis, pain, vomiting Fibrosis, stenosis, strictures, obstruction, ulceration
Lung Pneumonitis (dyspnea, non-productive cough and chest tightness) Fibrosis (scarring), dyspnea
Breast Edema Lymphoedema, fibrosis (hardening), atrophy (shrinking)
Intestine Mucositis, malabsorption, vomiting, diarrhea, pain, tenesmus, passage of mucus, bleeding Malabsorption, adhesions, stenosis, obstruction, proctitis, fistulae, incontinence, telangiectasia (leading to rectal bleeding), ulceration
Kidney, ureter, bladder Radiation nephritis, cystitis, increased micturition, dysuria, hyperemia, mucosal edema Chronic radiation nephritis (proteinuria, nocturia), progressive nephropathy with hypertension, and proteinuria, fibrosis, ulceration, obstruction, incontinence
Reproductive tract Vaginal mucositis, cessation of menstruation Sterility, induction of menopause, vaginal stenosis, vaginal obstruction, vaginal dryness, erectile dysfunction
Bone and cartilage   Growth retardation of growing bone, osteoradionecrosis, cartilage necrosis
Hemopoietic Decreased total white cells (leukopenia), decreased platelets (thrombocytopenia)