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Table 1 Demographic and metabolic characteristics of the study population, shown for patients, their unaffected co-twins, patients and their co-twins combined (discordant twin pairs), and the controls

From: Phospholipids and insulin resistance in psychosis: a lipidomics study of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia

Characteristic Controls Unaffected co-twins Patients P(F-test)
N 34 19 19  
Monozygotic 20 (10 pairs) 7 7  
Female 24 13 13  
Age (years)a 53.4 (50.2, 56.6) 51.0 (46.4, 55.6) 51.0 (46.4, 55.6)  
Diabetes 0 1 7  
Antipsychotic medication (atypical antipsychotics)b 0 0 15 (14)  
Cholesterol medication 2 0 6  
BMI 25.4 (23.8, 27.0)** 25.7 (24.0, 27.5)** 29.2 (26.5, 31.9) 0.020
Insulinc 7.7 (5.9, 9.9) 8.9 (6.9, 11.6)* 14.1 (9.1, 21.7) 0.085
Glucosec 5.07 (4.78, 5.38) 5.30 (4.54, 6.19) 5.76 (4.87, 6.80) 0.40
HOMA-IRc 1.72 (1.30, 2.29) 2.11 (1.52, 2.93)** 3.61 (2.22, 5.86) 0.062
  1. aData for this and other variables are shown as mean (95% confidence interval). bAccording to self-report. cGeometric means and confidence intervals; statistics estimated from log10-transformed data. *P < 0.1, **P < 0.05 (post-hoc analysis using Tukey all-pair comparisons versus the patient group; no comparisons were significant between the controls and unaffected co-twins). BMI, body mass index; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis Model Assessment index.