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Table 1 Detected changes in selected cytokines in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver inflammation

From: From hepatitis to hepatocellular carcinoma: a proposed model for cross-talk between inflammation and epigenetic mechanisms

Cytokine Upregulated or downregulated Sample/material studied References
TNFα Up and down Cirrhotic tissue, HCC patient serum, solid tumors [31, 33, 38, 41, 42]
IL6 Up and down Cirrhotic tissue, hepatitis C, HCC patient serum [3134, 40, 41, 43, 137]
IL1α Up HCC patient serum [31, 33]
IL1β Up Cirrhotic tissue, HCC patient serum, solid tumors [31, 33, 38, 42]
TGFβ Up and down Urine, HCC patient serum [31, 36]
IL10 Up Cirrhotic tissue, hepatitis B, HCC patient serum [31, 32, 35, 37, 39, 60]
  1. HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; IL, interleukin; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.