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Figure 3 | Genome Medicine

Figure 3

From: Applications of metabolomics for understanding the action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in diabetes, obesity and cancer

Figure 3

Stable Isotope flux analysis of PPARδ-agonist-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (a) Graphs showing the M+1/M isotope ratio 13C enrichment of lactate, glutamate and succinate analyzed by GC-MS of the aqueous fraction and M+1/M isotope ratio 13C enrichment of palmitic acid analyzed by GC-MS of the organic fraction from control (n = 6) and PPARδ-agonist-dosed (n = 6) 3T3-L1 cells incubated with 1-13C glucose. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. The metabolites have been mapped to the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolic pathways. Up arrow indicates a metabolite increased, and down arrow indicates a metabolite decreased in 13C enrichment by PPARδ activation. (b) Graphs showing the M+1/M isotope ratio 13C enrichment of malate, glutamate, fumarate and succinate analyzed by GC-MS of the aqueous fraction and enrichment of arachidic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, myristic acid and lauric acid analyzed by GC-MS of the organic fraction from control (n = 6) and PPARδ-agonist-dosed (n = 6) 3T3-L1 cells incubated with U-13C palmitate. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01,***P < 0.005. Up arrow indicates a metabolite increased, and down arrow indicates a metabolite decreased in 13C enrichment by PPARδ activation. Parent ions were used to calculate the ion ratio. Reproduced from [30] with permission.

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