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Table 2 Concentrations of metabolites in human cerebrospinal fluid samples

From: Multi-platform characterization of the human cerebrospinal fluid metabolome: a comprehensive and quantitative update

Compound name Average (μM) Standard deviation (μM) Literature value (μM)
1,5-Anhydrosorbitola 25 13 18 ± 5
2-Hydroxybutyric acida, b 40 24 35 ± 24
2-Hydroxyisovaleric acida 8 6 7 ± 7
2-Oxoglutaric acida 5 4 9 ± 3
2-Oxoisovaleric acida 6 3 8 ± 7
3-Hydroxybutyric acida 34 31 46 ± 24
3-Hydroxyisobutyric acida 6 3 18 ± 18
3-Hydroxyisovaleric acida 4 2 NA
Acetaminophena 11 6 NA
Acetic acida 58 27 100 ± 30
Acetoacetic acida 12 14 6 ± 6
Acetonea 20 21 67 ± 24
L-Alaninea 46 27 37 ± 7
Cholinea 3 1 8 ± 5
Citric acida 225 96 176 ± 50
Creatinea 44 13 NA
Creatininea 43 12 65 ± 25
Dimethylsulfonea 2 1 11 ± 6
Dimethylaminea 2 1 NA
Formic acida 32 16 NA
D-Fructosea 160 91 240 ± 20
D-Glucosea, c 2,960 1,110 5,390 ± 1,650
L-Glutamic acida 40 52 33 ± 7
L-Glutaminea, c 398 150 444 ± 80
Glycerola, b 28 14 14 ± 3
L-Histidinea, c 15 8 12 ± 2
L-Isoleucinea 7 5 8 ± 3
Isopropyl alcohola 22 56 NA
Lactic acida 1,651 626 1,590 ± 330
L-Leucinea 16 9 19 ± 4
L-Lysinea 29 13 28 ± 8
D-Mannosea 24 13 64 ± 8
Methanola 44 36 NA
L-Methioninea, c 5 4 6 ± 3
Myo-inositola 84 40 133 ± 20
Oxalacetic acida 27 15 7 ± 2
L-Phenyalaninea, c 15 8 18 ± 7
Propylene glycola 33 50 7.3 ± 0.5
Pyroglutamic acida 47 30 41 ± 30
Pyruvic acida 53 42 71 ± 30
L-Serinea, c 38 14 42 ± 15
L-Threoninea, c 28 8 28 ± 5
L-Tryptophana, c 10 5 2 ± 1
L-Tyrosinea 12 9 10 ± 4
L-Valinea 19 13 24 ± 7
Xanthinea 13 7 5 ± 1
4-Aminobutyric acidb <1 <1 0.3 ± 0.1
Adenosineb <1 <1 0.01 ± 0.01
Ascorbic acidb 178 15 164 ± 20
L-Asparagineb 4 2 5 ± 1
L-Aspartic acidb 2 1 3 ± 1
D-Galactoseb 107 45 166 ± 99
Mannitolb 5 2 5 ± 1
Ribitolb 18 5 4 ± 12
Succinic acida, b 47 12 29 ± 5
Thymineb <5 <2 <1
Ureab 3,820 1,600 4,160 ± 1,800
Uric acidb 15 10 16 ± 12
DL-carnitinec 1.9 0.5 4.0 ± 2.0
Acetyl-L-carnitinec 0.322 0.148 NA
Propionyl-L-carnitinec 0.018 0.009 NA
Hydroxypropionylcarnitinec 0.063 0.030 NA
Butyryl-L-carnitinec 0.024 0.007 NA
Valeryl-L-carnitinec 0.013 0.006 NA
Glycineb, c 6.1 1.4 8.2 ± 3.0
L-Argininec 17.9 5.7 20.2 ± 6.3
L-Ornithinec 4.5 2.2 6.0 ± 1.5
L-Prolinec 1.9 1.0 4.0 ± 2.0
SM (OH) C14:1c 0.028 0.004 NA
SM (OH) C16:1c 0.020 0.007 NA
SM (OH) C22:1c 0.034 0.009 NA
SM (OH) C22:2c 0.032 0.008 NA
SM (OH) C24:1c 0.017 0.004 NA
SM C16:0c 0.336 0.109 NA
SM C16:1c 0.040 0.016 NA
SM C18:0c 0.340 0.154 NA
SM C18:1c 0.069 0.026 NA
SM C20:2c 0.003 0.001 NA
SM C24:0c 0.114 0.022 NA
SM C24:1c 0.230 0.113 NA
SM C26:0c 0.007 0.001 NA
SM C26:1c 0.007 0.003 NA
PC aa C30:0c 0.086 0.005 NA
PC aa C30:2c 0.010 0.004 NA
PC aa C32:0c 0.252 0.080 NA
PC aa C32:1c 0.150 0.051 NA
PC aa C32:2c 0.024 0.008 NA
PC aa C34:1c 1.800 0.490 NA
PC aa C34:2c 0.245 0.010 NA
PC aa C34:3c 0.038 0.003 NA
PC aa C36:1c 0.212 0.062 NA
PC aa C36:2c 0.302 0.044 NA
PC aa C36:3c 0.126 0.040 NA
PC aa C36:4c 0.228 0.036 NA
PC aa C36:5c 0.041 0.007 NA
PC aa C38:1c 0.041 0.002 NA
PC aa C38:3c 0.110 0.049 NA
PC aa C38:4c 0.209 0.068 NA
PC aa C38:5c 0.074 0.011 NA
PC aa C38:6c 0.079 0.010 NA
PC aa C40:3c 0.004 0.001 NA
PC aa C40:4c 0.015 0.007 NA
PC aa C40:5c 0.031 0.003 NA
PC aa C42:4c 0.004 0.001 NA
PC ae C32:1c 0.022 0.007 NA
PC ae C34:0c 0.018 0.005 NA
PC ae C34:1c 0.085 0.008 NA
PC ae C34:2c 0.062 0.005 NA
PC ae C34:3c 0.011 0.001 NA
PC ae C36:1c 0.032 0.007 NA
PC ae C36:2c 0.024 0.009 NA
PC ae C36:3c 0.017 0.006 NA
PC ae C36:4c 0.024 0.005 NA
PC ae C36:5c 0.032 0.005 NA
PC ae C38:1c 0.009 0.002 NA
PC ae C38:2c 0.013 0.002 NA
PC ae C38:3c 0.009 0.003 NA
PC ae C38:4c 0.020 0.005 NA
PC ae C38:5c 0.025 0.008 NA
PC ae C38:6c 0.014 0.004 NA
PC ae C40:5c 0.006 0.001 NA
PC ae C40:6c 0.018 0.003 NA
PC ae C44:4c 0.013 0.001 NA
PC ae C44:5c 0.024 0.009 NA
lysoPC a C18:0c 0.069 0.019 NA
lysoPC a C20:4c 0.024 0.007 NA
  1. aMetabolites measured by NMR. bMetabolites measured by GC-MS. cMetabolites measured by DFI-MS/MS. aa, diacyl; ae, acyl-alkyl; NA, not available; PC, phosphatidylcholine; SM, sphingomyelin.