Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure for HLA alleles associated with drug-induced liver injury in Caucasians. From the literature, we selected class I and class II HLA alleles that have been reported to be associated with DILI. Seven candidate gene and five genome-wide association studies were included in the analysis. Drugs and associated alleles that have been implicated in DILI are organized in frames. Colored boxes represent information gained from the England North West (ENW) cohort (red), dbMHC (green) and AFND (blue). Haplotype frequencies > 5% are depicted by connecting lines. Please note that the extended HLA class II haplotype associated with flucloxacillin-induced DILI comprises B*57:01, DRB1*07:01 and DQB1*03:03, rather than DQB1*02:01. Ambiguous codes A*33:03g, B*08:01g, DQB1*02:01g and DQB1*06:04g in the ENW population were allocated as A*33:03, B*08:01, DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*06:04, respectively. Haplotype frequencies in the ENW population are shown to three decimal places. Values in parentheses indicate the number of populations in dbMHC (green) and AFND (blue) that contain two loci haplotypes with frequencies over 5%. Table S6 in Additional file 1 lists the percentage of individuals from the ENW cohort who are carriers of alleles and haplotypes associated with DILI, as are represented in this figure.