Protein dynamic range and percentage in blood plasma. (a) The normal range of protein abundances in plasma is illustrated for a subset of 34 proteins representing the most to least abundant. The figure was assembled using data from Anderson and Anderson . Because the dynamic range of protein concentrations covers over ten orders of magnitude, with the proteins of interest present at the lower concentrations, analyzing plasma samples has proven to be very difficult. (b) The approximate percentages of each protein in plasma are further illustrated using pie charts for the most abundant 22 proteins representing approximately 99% of the plasma protein mass. The top 10 proteins that make up approximately 90% of all plasma proteins are shown on the left. The remaining 10% is further divided on the right with the least abundant remaining 1% group representing thousands of proteins, which are of most interest for biomarker studies. IgA, immunoglobulin A; IgG, immunoglobulin G; IgM, immunoglobulin M.