Bacterial taxonomic classifications and comparisons of relative abundance between Tanner stage groups. (a) Relative abundances of 12 major phyla-family taxonomies in nares. Subjects are ordered by age ('y**') and Tanner staging is indicated. (b) Barplots of mean proportions of select major phyla-family classifications in nares. Statistical significance for false-discovery rate-adjusted P-values was assessed at α ≤ 0.05; * P ≤ 0.05, ** P ≤ 0.001, *** P ≤ 0.0001. Tanner 1 means are shown in blue; Tanner 5 in red. The full version for the nares is provided in Figure S4 in Additional file 2. (c) Barplots of mean proportions of major species designations for genera Staphylococcus (left) and Streptococcus (right) in nares; descriptions are as in (b).