Copy number analyses of plasma samples from men with prostate cancer. (a) Z-scores calculated for 1-Mbp windows from the 13 plasma samples of patients with prostate cancer showed a high variability (compare with same calculations from men without malignant disease in Figure 1a, upper panel). (b) Hierarchical clustering (Manhattan distances of chromosomal z-scores) separates samples from men without cancer and with prostate cancer. (c) Copy number analyses, based on segmental z-scores, of an unmatched normal male plasma sample and five plasma samples from patients with prostate cancer (CRPC2, CRPC3, CRPC5, CSPC2, and CSPC4). The Y-axis indicates log2-ratios.