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Table 3 Examples of gene expression studies of osteoporosis

From: Genome-wide approaches for identifying genetic risk factors for osteoporosis

Subjects and samples Treatment Differentially expressed genes Important regulated genesa Refs
Human osteoblasts isolated from trabecular bone tissue of femoral neck and proximal femur Comparing the gene expression profiles of osteoblasts from osteoporotic versus non-osteoporotic bone tissues 1,606 Upregulated: IBSP, CXCL2; downregulated: PTN, COL15A1 [62]
Human MSCs Oleanolic acid 256 Genes involved in osteoblastic differentiation [69]
  Ex vivo long-term cultivation   ID4, CRYAB, SORT1, TGF-β2, and BMPs [64]
  Cell culture   NDN, EPHA5, NOV, RUNX2 [65]
Human monocytes of low BMD subjects Isolation from human blood 13 STAT1 [60]
Differentiation and proliferation of mouse osteoblast cells High cholesterol 992 upregulated, 2,290 downregulated Upregulated: TGF-β, BMP2, CBFA1, and proteins involved in Wnt signaling pathways; downregulated: IL-6 and AGER [61]
Bone resorption and formation of male mice in high-fat diet Antioxidant lipoic acid 17 upregulated, 19 downregulated Upregulated: COL1A1, ALP1, IGF-1, and IL12; downregulated: MMP9, CTSK, P53, TGFBR1, and IL17a [66]
Both pairs of femora and tibiae of Sprague-Dawley female rats Three different PTH peptides, PTH(1-34), (1-31), and (3-34)   Slpi, tfpi2, socs3, gro1, RANKL, phex, Gprc5c, and CXCR4 [70]
  1. aFor gene abbreviations and explanations of pathways, see Table 5.