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Table 1 Current and putative prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

From: Novel approaches for the identification of biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer

Marker Source Reference(s)
Clinical or pathological characteristics
High-risk prostate cancer defined as: stage T2ca or higher and PSA >20 ng/ml, or Gleason 8-10 Tissue biopsy, serum D'Amico et al. [11]
PSA velocity Serum D'Amico et al. [14]
Circulating tumor cells Whole blood Kantoff et al. [35], Goodman et al. [36]
Molecular factors
Ki-67 Prostate tissue Berney et al. [16], Khor et al. [17], Bettencourt et al. [18], Fisher et al. [19]
α-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase Prostate tissue Murphy et al. [20], Rubin et al. [21]
Prostate-specific membrane antigen Prostate tissue Ross et al. [23], Perner et al. [24]
Urokinase plasminogen activator or Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 Prostate tissue Gupta et al. [30]
Transforming growth factor-β or interleukin-6 soluble receptor Prostate tissue Shariat et al. [31], Shariat et al. [32]
microRNA Plasma, urine Porkka et al. [37]
Telomerase Post-prostate massage urinary cells Meid et al. [55]
Annexin A3 Post-prostate massage urine Schostak et al. [57]
Matrix metalloproteinase 9, 2 Urine Roy et al. [59], Di Carlo et al. [60]
Genetic features
Multi-gene panels Prostate tissue Cuzick et al. [25], Ding et al. [26], Penney et al. [28]
Copy number variations Prostate tissue Taylor et al. [27]
DNA-methylation patterns Prostate tissue Cottrell et al. [29]
  1. aStage T2 category refers to tumors that can be felt during a digital rectal exam (DRE) or observed with imaging, but is still confined to the prostate.