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Table 1 Classification of pediatric and adult brain tumors

From: Pediatric high-grade astrocytomas: a distinct neuro-oncological paradigm

Tumor type Subtype Grade Histology Location Prevalent age group Therapy Prognosis
Astrocytomas Pilocytic astrocytoma I Pilocytic cell morphology, less infiltrative, low proliferative activity. Cerebellum, optic pathway, brainstem, thalamus and spine. Children
(0 to 16)
Surgical resection, adjuvant therapies considered in the case of incomplete surgical resection. Excellent (100% 5-year survival; 96% 10-year survival)
  Diffuse astrocytoma II Infiltrative with low proliferative potential but often recurs. Can progress to higher grades in adults. Cerebrum, optic pathway, brainstem, hypothalamus, thalamus and spine. Young adults (20 to 39 years) Surgery; adjuvant therapies considered on a case by case basis. Moderate (58% 5-year survival)
  Anaplastic astrocytoma III Infiltrative, with nuclear atypia and higher mitotic activity. Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem and spine Adults Surgical resection when possible, followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Poor (11% 5-year survival)
  Glioblastoma multiforme IV Infiltrative,nuclear atypia, high mitotic activity, pseudopalissading necroses, florid microvascular proliferation. Cerebrum, cerebellum and spine, but brainstem gliobastoma multiforme (DIPGs) are more frequent in children. Adults, except DIPG, which is prevalent in children below 10 years of age Surgical resection when possible, followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Very poor (1.2% 5-year survival)
  1. DIPG, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.