Estimation of genotyping errors from standardized dissimilarity scores. The reference curve with its 5% and 95% quantiles is based on the distances of samples with simulated error rates to the reference set. The SDS of a test sample indicates its error rate by its intersection with the reference curve. The estimated error rate of test sample 1 is considerably higher than of test sample 2 and of NA06986 from the 1000 genomes project. SDS, standardized dissimilarity score.