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Table 1 Status of circulating biomarkers of hepatotoxicity

From: Emerging hepatotoxicity biomarkers and their potential to improve understanding and management of drug-induced liver injury

Type In clinical use Emerging
Proteins ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, 5′-nucleotidase, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 PON1, PNP, MDH, GLDH, ARG1, αGST, HPD, K18, HMGB1
Nucleic acids   miR-122 and miR-192, mRNA Alb and mRNA Ambp
Excretory function markers Bilirubin, total bile acids Bile acid profiles (conjugated vs. unconjugated)
Genetic   HLA-B*5701, HLA-A*0201 and HLA-DQB1*0602
  1. Alb, albumin; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ambp, α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor; ARG1, arginase 1; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; GLDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; αGST, α gluthathione-S-transferase; HMGB1, high mobility group box-1 protein; HPD, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase; IL-1β, interleukin-1β; IL-6, interleukin-6; K18, keratin-18; MDH, malate dehydrogenase; miRNA-122, microRNA-122; miRNA-192, microRNA-192; PON1, paraoxonase 1; PNP, purine nucleoside phosphorylase; TNFα, tumor necrosis factor-α.