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Table 1 How systems medicine is transforming healthcare

From: Participatory medicine: a driving force for revolutionizing healthcare

Systems medicine Healthcare outcome
Provides fundamental insights into dynamic disease-perturbed networks in model organisms Enables mechanistic insights, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for the individual patient
Pioneers family genome sequencing, identifying disease genes inexpensively and effectively Identifies disease, wellness and drug-intolerant gene products. Identifies individuals who have any one or more of 300 actionable gene variants
Transforms blood into a window to distinguish health from disease Disease diagnostics, assesses drug toxicity and wellness; examples include lung cancer, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), liver toxicity and hepatitis
Stratifies diseases into their distinct subtypes For selecting specific and effective drugs for each subtype
Stratifies patients - drug adverse reactions, modifier genes to disease mechanisms, for example early and late onset of Huntington’s disease, variant genes that increase mercury susceptibility in children Stratifies patients for appropriate treatments
Permits a multi-organ approach to the study of disease Unravels the complexity of the individual patient’s disease and how a single disease affects multiple organs
Enables new computational approaches to pioneering drug reuse and drug target discovery Re-engineers disease-perturbed networks to normalcy with drugs and repurpose drugs. Faster and cheaper to develop drugs that prevent networks from becoming disease-perturbed
Focuses on wellness Wellness is a driver for P4 medicine of the future
Creates large-scale, multiparameter, Framingham-like clinical trials to permit the longitudinal analyses of disease or wellness states These studies will provide insights into early disease mechanisms and will provide new approaches to diagnosis and therapy