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Table 1 Highlights from proteomic studies of the tumor microenvironment

From: Proteomic profiling of the tumor microenvironment: recent insights and the search for biomarkers

  Experimental system Approach Key proteins
Tumor ECM EMT in murine cancer cells [24] MS of subcellular fractions Fibronectin, collagens, laminins
  Metastatic melanoma cells [26] Secretome MS Fibronectin, ECM1, SPARC, osteopontin
  Hepatocarcinogenesis [29] ECM MS Collagen splice variants, nidogen, decorin, perlecan
  Cell attachment to collagen [34] Phosphoprotein analysis DBF4, GRK6, PAK2, FAK/ PTK2
  Breast cancer metastasis [34] MS Cystatin-M
  Tumor invasiveness [41] Antibody libraries hsp90α
Tumor-stroma interactions Tumor versus normal stroma [45] Laser capture + MS CapG (actin-regulating protein)
  CAFs [49] MS of cell lysates Caveolin-1
  MMP7 effect of CAFs [50] MS of cell lysates IGFBP5
  Lung cancer TME [54] Cytokine assays CXCL1, IL-18
  Stromal cell secretome [60] Antibody arrays HGF
Immune cells in the tumor microenvironment Mesothelioma effusions [67] Antibody arrays HGF, MIP-1d, MIP-3a, NAP-2
  Ovarian tumor macrophages [68] MS of supernatants 14-3-3 zeta
  CD45RA + versus CD45RO + T cells [70] MS of cell lysates Cell redox proteins
  MDSCs + IL1B [72] MS of cell lysates FAS pathway and caspase network
  1. Some studies have focused on the ECM, others on tumor-stroma interactions and on immune cells infiltrating the tumor microenvironment. These studies have utilized various experimental systems applied to different tumor types. Some of the key proteins that have been found to be involved are highlighted, illustrating the numerous protein families that play a role in the tumor microenvironment. Abbreviations: CXCL1, interferon-inducible protein-1; DBF4, activator of S-phase kinase 4; GRK6, G-protein coupled receptor kinase 6; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; hsp90α, heat shock protein 90α; IGFBP5, insulin growth factor binding protein 5; IL-18, interleukin-18; IL1B, interleukin1B; MIP-1d, macrophage inflammatory protein-1d; MIP-3a, macrophage inflammatory protein-3a; MMP7, matrix metalloproteinase 7; NAP-2, neutrophil-activating peptide-2; PAK2, SPARC, secreted protein, acidic, cysteine rich; TME, tumor microenvironment.