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Table 1 Clinical features, age of onset, lifetime prevalence and pharmacological management of major mental disorders

From: Genomic insights into the overlap between psychiatric disorders: implications for research and clinical practice

Disorder Core features Associated features Typical age of onset (years) Lifetime prevalence (%) Pharmacological management
ADHD InattentionHyperactivityImpulsivity Cognitive impairment 7 to 12 5 [5] Psychostimulants (for example, methylphenidate)
ASD Deficits in social communication and social interaction Restricted and repetitive behaviors Cognitive impairment Hallucinations Delusions <3 1 to 2 [68] No recommended drug treatment Medication used to treat comorbidities if present
Schizophrenia Hallucinations Delusions Disorganized speech or behavior Apathy Lack of emotional reactivity Cognitive impairment Discrete episodes of elevated, irritable or agitated mood Episodes of low mood 16 to 30 0.7 [9] Antipsychotics (for example, risperidone)
Bipolar disorder Discrete episodes of elevated, irritable or agitated mood Episodes of low mood Hallucinations Delusions 18 to 40 1 [10] Mood stabilizers (for example, lithium)Antipsychotics (for example, olanzapine)
Major depressive disorder Low mood Loss of interest or pleasure Lack of energy Psychosis 20 to 45 12.5 [10] Antidepressants (for example, citalopram)
  1. ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; ASD, autism spectrum disorder.