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Table 2 ELSI practices and regulations for human genomic research in East Asia

From: ELSI practices in genomic research in East Asia: implications for research collaboration and public participation

  Regulationsa Responsible agencies Challenges for research collaboration and public participation
China Interim Measures for the Administration of Human Genetic Resources (1998) [30] Ministry of Science and Technology; Ministry of Health Public concerns about the misuse of genetic information
    Public distrust of authorities
  Regulations on Ethics Review of Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects (2007) [31] Ministry of Health  
Indonesia National Guideline on Research Ethics: Genetic Research (2008) National Committee on Research Ethics Protection of rights and privacy of indigenous populations
  National Regulation on Material Transfer Agreement (2009) Ministry of Health Need for more integrated approach on genome research
    Low public awareness on genetic information and related ELSI issues
Japan Ethical Guidelines for Human Genome/Gene Analysis Research (2001) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; Ministry of Economy, Industry and Trade Public concerns about privacy protection in relation to genetic information
  Protection of Personal Information Act (2003) Consumer Affairs Agency  
Singapore Guidelines for IRBs (2004) Bioethics Advisory Committee/Ministry of Health Public concerns about potential discrimination, inequitable access and conflicts of interest
  Guidelines on Genetic Testing and Research (2005) Bioethics Advisory Committee/Ministry of Health  
  National Registries of Disease Act (2007) National Registry of Diseases Office (NRDO)  
  Guidelines on Use of Personal Information in Biomedical Research (2007) Bioethics Advisory Committee/Ministry of Health  
  Personal Data Protection Act (2012) Data Protection Commission  
South Korea Bioethics and Biosafety Act (2005) National Bioethics Committee Low public awareness of genomic medicine
  Personal Information Protection Act (2012) Ministry of Public Administration and Security  
  Guidelines for Protecting Genomic Information in Medical Institutions (2012) Ministry of Public Administration and Security; Ministry of Health and Welfare  
  Guidelines for Protecting Genomic Information (2013) National Project for Personalized Genomic Medicine 21 (PGM21) [32]  
Taiwan Guidelines for Collection and Use of Human Specimens for Research (2002) Ministry of Health and Welfare Insufficient public communication and trust
    Strict legal regulations due to privacy concerns from human right groups
  Regulations on Human Trials (2009) Ministry of Health and Welfare  
  Personal Information Protection Act (2010) Ministry of Justice  
  Human Biobank Management Act (2010) [33] Ministry of Health and Welfare  
  Human Subjects Research Act (2011) Ministry of Health and Welfare  
  1. aYear of establishment of regulation, or enactment of law, is shown in parentheses.