Volcano plots contrasting differential expression with respect to CAD status, AMI, or incident cardiovascular death. Data were transformed by the SNM procedure (see Additional file 9 for similar analysis of standard normalized data). (A) Cardiovascular death versus survivors in the discovery phase, where shaded points indicate transcripts that are differentially expressed at NLP >2.7 (5% FDR). (B) Replication of cardiovascular death direction of effect in the replication phase. (C) No CAD versus CAD, showing absence of overlap with AMI or cardiovascular death in direction of effects. (D) AMI versus no-AMI in the discovery phase, showing similarity of direction of differential expression relative to (A). (E) Cardiovascular death versus survivors; same as (A) but after removing all individuals who were experiencing an AMI. (F) Individuals who experienced an AMI after enrolment versus not at all, also showing the cardiac death signature is in the same direction for predicting heart attack in general.