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Table 1 Current FDA-approved antivirals and their targets

From: Virus-host interactomics: new insights and opportunities for antiviral drug discovery

DrugBank ID Name Type Year of first approval as an antiviral Virus Target(s)
DB00249 Idoxuridine Small molecule 1963 HSV DNA, viral thymidine kinase
DB00915 Amantadine Small molecule 1966 Influenza virus Viral matrix protein M2
DB00987 Cytarabine Small molecule 1969 Herpesviruses Human cytidine deaminase, human cytochrome P450 3A4, human deoxycytidine kinase, human 5’-nucleotidase, human deoxycytidylate deaminase
DB00194 Vidarabine Small molecule 1976 HSV, VZV Viral DNA polymerase, viral thymidine kinase, DNA
DB00811 Ribavirin Small molecule 1980 HCV, RSV Human inosine-5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1, human adenosine kinase, human cytosolic purine 5’-nucleotidase
DB00787 Aciclovir Small molecule 1982 HSV1, HSV2, VZV Viral DNA polymerase, viral thymidine kinase
DB00495 Zidovudine Small molecule 1987 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB01004 Ganciclovir Small molecule 1989 CMV Viral DNA polymerase, viral thymidine kinase, DNA
- Tromantadine Small molecule Later than 1990 HSV Human glycoproteins
- Interferons Proteins 1990s Hepatitis, etc. Human IFNARs
DB00900 Didanosine Small molecule 1991 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00529 Foscarnet Small molecule 1991 CMV, HSV Viral DNA polymerase
DB00943 Zalcitabine Small molecule 1992 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00426 Famciclovir Small molecule 1994 HSV, VZV Viral DNA polymerase
DB00478 Rimantadine Small molecule 1994 Influenza virus Viral matrix protein M2
DB00649 Stavudine Small molecule 1994 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00709 Lamivudine Small molecule 1995 HIV, HBV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00432 Trifluridine Small molecule 1995 HSV Viral thymidylate kinase
DB00577 Valaciclovir Small molecule 1995 HSV, VZV, CMV Viral DNA polymerase, viral thymidine kinase
DB00369 Cidofovir Small molecule 1996 CMV Viral DNA polymerase
DB00224 Indinavir Small molecule 1996 HIV Viral protease
DB00238 Nevirapine Small molecule 1996 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00299 Penciclovir Small molecule 1996 HSV Viral DNA polymerase, viral thymidine kinase
DB00503 Ritonavir Small molecule 1996 HIV Viral protease
DB01232 Saquinavir Small molecule 1996 HIV Viral protease
DB00705 Delavirdine Small molecule 1997 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00220 Nelfinavir Small molecule 1997 HIV Viral protease
DB01048 Abacavir Small molecule 1998 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00625 Efavirenz Small molecule 1998 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
- Fomivirsen Oligonucleotide 1998 CMV Viral mRNA
DB00110 Palivizumab Humanized monoclonal antibody 1998 RSV Viral fusion glycoprotein F0
DB00701 Amprenavir Small molecule 1999 HIV Viral protease
DB00198 Oseltamivir Small molecule 1999 Influenza virus Viral neuraminidase
DB00558 Zanamivir Small molecule 1999 Influenza virus Viral neuraminidase
DB00632 Docosanol Small molecule 2000 HSV Viral envelope glycoprotein
DB01601 Lopinavir Small molecules 2000 HIV Viral protease
DB00022 Peginterferon alfa-2b Protein 2001 HCV Human IFNARs
DB00300 Tenofovir Small molecule 2001 HIV, HBV Viral DNA
DB01610 Valganciclovir Small molecule 2001 CMV DNA
DB00718 Adefovir Dipivoxil Small molecule 2002 HBV Viral DNA polymerase
DB00008 Peginterferon alfa-2a Protein 2002 Hepatitis Human IFNARs
DB01072 Atazanavir Small molecule 2003 HIV Viral protease
DB00879 Emtricitabine Small molecule 2003 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB00109 Enfuvirtide Protein 2003 HIV Viral envelope glycoprotein
DB01319 Fosamprenavir Small molecule 2003 HIV Viral protease
DB00442 Entecavir Small molecule 2005 HBV DNA
DB00932 Tipranavir Small molecule 2005 HIV Viral protease
DB01264 Darunavir Small molecule 2006 HIV Viral protease
DB01265 Telbivudine Small molecule 2006 HBV Viral DNA polymerase, DNA
DB04835 Maraviroc Small molecule 2007 HIV Human CCR5
DB06817 Raltegravir Small molecule 2007 HIV Viral integrase
DB06414 Etravirine Small molecule 2008 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB08873 Boceprevir Small molecule 2011 HCV Viral NS3 protein
DB08864 Rilpivirine Small molecule 2011 HIV Viral reverse transcriptase
DB05521 Telaprevir Small molecule 2011 HCV Virus NS3-4A protease
  1. Abbreviations: CMV cytomegalovirus, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, HSV herpes simplex virus, IFNAR interferon alpha/beta receptor, RSV respiratory syncytial virus, VZV varicella zoster virus.