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Table 1 Efforts and incentives to leverage clinical data for genomics research

From: Extracting research-quality phenotypes from electronic health records to support precision medicine

Projects Region Start year Website Aims
eMERGE United States 2007 [152] To develop methods and best practices for the utilization of EHRs for genetic research
i2b2 United States 2004 [153] To provide researchers with useful tools to leverage EHRs for clinical and genetic research
PGPop United States 2010 [59] To understand how a person’s genes affect his or her response to medicines
deCODE genetics Iceland 1996 [60] To leverage population-based and EHR-linked biosamples to investigate inherited causes of common diseases
UK Biobank United Kingdom 2007 [61] To improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of serious and life-threatening illnesses through a collection of around 500,000 volunteers' biosamples and clinical information
MVP United States 2011 [52] To enroll one million volunteers and use their clinical and genetic data to improve health care for veterans
KP RPGEH United States 2009 [53] To examine the genetic and environmental factors that influence common diseases
CKB China 2004 [154] To explore the complex interplay between genes and environmental factors on the risks of common chronic diseases
  1. CKB, China Kadoorie Biobank; eMERGE, The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network; i2b2, Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside; KP, Kaiser Permanente; MVP, Million Veteran Program; PGPop, Pharmacogenomic Discovery and Replication in Very Large Patient Populations; RPGEH, Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health.