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Table 1 Epigenetic toolbox: a list of targetable chromatin-modifier constructs reported to date

From: Brave new epigenomes: the dawn of epigenetic engineering

Construct Enzymatic function Target region Effect on gene expression Reference
dCas9–p300 Histone acetyltransferase, transcriptional co-activator Promoters and enhancers Between approximately 50-fold (OCT4, MYOD) and 10,000-fold (IL1RN) upregulation when targeted to promoters (qPCR); up to 300-fold for enhancers (qPCR); lower levels of activation by RNA-seq [8]
TALE–TET1 Methylcytosine dioxygenase (DNA demethylation) Promoter Between approximately 50-fold (HBB) and more than 100–1,000-fold (RHOXF2) activation over “off-target” controls (qPCR) [7]
ZF–DNMT3a DNA methyltransferase Promoter Between approximately 0.5-fold and 0.2-fold change (qPCR, western blot) [5, 6]
ZF–G9a H3K9 methyltransferase Promoter Up to approximately 0.5-fold change (qPCR) [4]
TALE–LSD1 H3K4 and H3K9 demethylase Several candidate enhancers Up to approximately 0.4-fold change (RNA-seq) [2]
dCas9–LSD1 H3K4 and H3K9 demethylase Several candidate enhancers Up to approximately 0.02-fold change (qPCR) [3]
TALE–KYP, TALE–TgSET8, TALE–NUE Histone methyltransferases Promoter Up to approximately 0.3-fold change (qPCR) [10]
TALE–HDAC8, TALE–RPD3, TALE–Sir2a, TALE–Sin3a Histone deacetylase Promoter Up to approximately 0.3-fold change (qPCR) [10]
ZF + 223 different yeast chromatin modifiers Various Yeast pCYC1 Approximately 100-fold change (activators); approximately 0.06-fold change (repressors) [11]
  1. qPCR quantitative PCR, TALE TAL protein, ZF synthetic zinc finger