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Table 2 Examples of reprogramming of the immunogenome by the microbiota

From: Metagenomic cross-talk: the regulatory interplay between immunogenomics and the microbiome

Cell type Influence Microbial signal(s) References
Macrophages Deposition of activating histone marks, enhanced cytokine expression Unknown [40, 132]
Macrophages HDAC inhibition, reduced cytokine expression Butyrate [41]
Regulatory T cells HDAC inhibition, acetylation of FoxP3 CNS1 region, induction of proliferation, upregulation of Uhrf1 Butyrate [4245]
T helper 17 cells Transcriptional reprogramming through epithelially produced SAA1 and SAA2 Epithelial attachment [47, 48]
Neutrophils Induction of neutrophil aging, steady-state granulopoiesis, stimulation of migration through SAA1 and SAA2 TLR ligands [133135]
Innate lymphoid cells Transcriptional reprogramming, cytokine induction Unknown [133135]
Natural killer T cells Mucosal recruitment via CXCL16, cytokine production Glycosphingolipids [52, 136, 137]
γδ T cells Transcriptional reprogramming Unknown [51]
  1. HDAC histone deacetylase, TLR Toll-like receptor