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Table 1 Infection-associated cancers and aberrant DNA methylation

From: Epigenetic impact of infection on carcinogenesis: mechanisms and applications

Bacterium or virus Cancer type Tumor-suppressor genes methylated Direct or indirect effect Factors involved in induction of aberrant methylation
Helicobacter pylori Gastric cancer p16, LOX [39], miR-124a [47], miR-34b/c [48], ANGPTL4 [46], FHL1 [44] Indirect Inflammation
Epstein-Barr virus Gastric cancer p73 [72], TFF1 [73] Direct and/or indirect Latent membrane proteins
  Nasopharyngeal cancer DLC1 [79], DAPK [77], p15, p16, RASSF1A, TSLC1 [78] Unknown Unknown
  Burkitt’s lymphoma BIM, PRDM1 [84] Unknown Unknown
Hepatitis B virus Hepatocellular carcinoma p16 [97], p21, CDH1 [18], SOCS1 [103], RASSF1A, GSTP1 [98] Direct and/or indirect HBx and inflammation
Hepatitis C virus Hepatocellular carcinoma p16 [97], RASSF1A, GSTP1 [98], RIZ1 [103] Indirect Inflammation
Human papillomavirus Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma p16, CDH1, RARβ [115], MGMT [114], DAPK [113], DCC, GALR1, GALR2 Unknown Unknown
  Cervical cancer p16, FHIT, GSTP1, MGMT [120], MAL [122], TSLC1 [123] Unknown Unknown
Merkel cell polyomavirus Merkel cell carcinoma RASSF1A [161] Unknown Unknown
  1. HBx HBV encoded protein X