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Fig. 4 | Genome Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease

Fig. 4

Effects of a healthy gut microbiota and dysbiosis on the gut and metabolic health of the host. A healthy microbiota comprises a balanced representation of symbionts (bacteria with health-promoting functions) and pathobionts (bacteria that potentially induce pathology). A shift toward dysbiosis results from a decrease in symbionts and/or an increase in pathobionts and is likely to be triggered by environmental factors (such as diet, stress, antibiotics, and infections). Low bacterial gene counts have also been associated with altered gut microbial functions and dysbiosis and have been linked to increased fat accumulation, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Individuals with these characteristics are more likely to develop metabolic diseases (such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory bowel diseases). LBP LPS-binding protein, SCFA short-chain fatty acid

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