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Table 1 Mother and infant characteristics

From: Ethnic and diet-related differences in the healthy infant microbiome

  White Caucasians South Asians P value
Maternal characteristicsa
 Number per group 173 182  
 Maternal age in years (SD) 31.9 (4.13) 30.5 (4.03) 0.002#
 Maternal height (cm) 166.3 (6.54)c 161.5 (6.54)b <0.001#
 Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (if available) 24.6 (4.65)c 24.2 (4.51) >0.05#
 Maternal weight gain 15.2 (5.73)f 15.3 (8.99)b >0.05#
 Years mother lived in Canada (SD) 29.5 (7.71)b 7.7 (5.96) <0.001#
 Vegetarian status of mother N (%) 4 (2.31%) 62 (34.07%)b <0.001*
 Gestational diabetes N (%) 7 (4.05%)b 26 (14.29%)b <0.001*
 Mode of delivery N (%)
  Vaginal 123 (82.00%)c 121 (78.57%) >0.05*
  C-Section 27 (18.00%)c 33 (21.43%)
 Antibiotics during pregnancy
  Yes 14 (8.09%) 1 (0.55%) <0.001*
  No 159 (91.91%) 181 (99.45%)
 Antibiotics during labor
  Yes 59 (38.06%)d 79 (45.40%)b 0.036*
  No 96 (61.94%)d 95 (54.60%)b
Infant covariatesa
 Currently breastfeeding at sample collection N
  Yes 56 (36.13%)b 78 (43.33%)b 0.036*
  No 99 (63.87%)b 102 (56.67%)b
 Breastfed in the first year
  Yes 167 (97.1%)b 170 (94.4%)b >0.05*
  No 5 (2.9%)b 10 (5.5%)b
 Time since weaning in months (SD) 5.6 (4.02)f 7.1 (5.85)f 0.045#
 Currently using cow’s milk
  Yes 68 (57.63%)e 121 (67.98%)b 0.019*
  No 50 (42.37%)e 57 (32.02%)b
 Currently using formula
  Yes 47 (31.13%)d 72 (39.56%) 0.026*
  No 104 (68.87%)d 110 (60.44%)
 Formula in the first year
  Yes 99 (63.06%)c 154 (90.06%)c <0.001*
  No 58 (36.94%)c 17 (9.94%)c
 Time in months of introduction of solids
  0–3 6 (4.03%)d 2 (1.11%)b <0.001§
  3–6 75 (50.34%)d 159 (88.33%)b
  6–9 66 (44.30%)d 17 (9.44%)b
  9–12 2 (1.34%)d 2 (1.11%)b
 Birth weight in kg (SD) 3.5 (0.47)c 3.3 (0.48) <0.001#
 Weight gain in the first year in kg (SD) 6.4 (1.21)c 7.1 (1.31) <0.001#
 Age of infant at time of sample collection in months (SD) 12.3 (1.71) 12.4 (1.69) 0.39#
 Gestational age in weeks (SD) 39.5 (1.33)b 39.1 (1.36) 0.006#
  1. awhere there is no superscript there was no missing data
  2. bLess than 5.00% data missing
  3. cLess than 10.00% data missing
  4. d10–20% data missing
  5. e32% data missing
  6. f40–50% data missing
  7. *Fischer’s exact test
  8. §Cochrane Armitage trend test
  9. Maternal vegetarian status was used as a surrogate for infant diet exposure
  10. # T-test