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Table 1 Comparison of clinically relevant RNA delivery platforms

From: Advances in the delivery of RNA therapeutics: from concept to clinical reality

Delivery vehicle Type of RNA in clinical trials Advantages Disadvantages References
Naked RNA siRNA, ASO, mRNA No additional materials or synthesis required Prone to degradation
Immunogenic
Difficulty entering cell
Poor circulation half-life
[63,64,74,75,76,77,65, 7378, 101, 103, 114, 115]
Nanoparticle siRNA, ASO, mRNA Increased half life
Protection from nucleases
Aids in endocytosis and endosomal escape
Elevated risk of toxicity with introducing excipient materials [12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,59,83,84,107,111,112,157,158,37, 5860, 8285, 106108, 110113, 131, 145, 156159]
Conjugate siRNA, ASO Defined chemical structure
Ability to target specific receptors
Limited toxicity due to lack of excipient materials
High doses required
Dependent on chemical modifications for RNA stability
[38,39,40,41,42,43, 62]
  1. ASO antisense oligonucleotide, siRNA short interfering RNA