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Table 1 Characteristics of samples included in the MINERvA cohort

From: Elevated polygenic burden for autism is associated with differential DNA methylation at birth

Characteristic Unit/category ASD Controls P value
Sexa (%) Male 52.0 49.8 0.933
Birth yeara (%) 1998 31.8 30.6 0.991
1999 28.3 29
2000 7 6.78
2001 13.7 14.2
2002 19.2 19.4
Gestational ageb (mean (sd)) Weeks 39.6 (1.82) 39.6 (1.72) 0.96
Urbanicityb (%) 1: Capital 18.1 17 0.879
2: Suburb of the capital 14.9 13.4
3: Municipalities having a town with more than 100,000 inhabitants 8.27 8.68
4: Municipalities having a town with between 10,000 and 100,000 inhabitants 27.3 29.2
5: Other municipalities in Denmark (largest town has less than 10,000 inhabitants) 31.3 31.7
Time to sampling (mean (sd)) Days 6.01 (3.15) 6.15 (3.33) 0.46
Maternal age (mean (sd)) Years 29.2 (4.94) 29.7 (4.57) 0.07
Paternal age (mean (sd)) Years 32.1 (6.04) 31.9 (5.40) 0.476
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (%) Smoke at any time 29.0 21.2 0.00256
Non-smoker 71.0 78.8
Maternal smoking amount during pregnancy (%) 5 or less cigarettes per day 6.46 7.25 0.00573
6–10 cigarettes per day 11.2 7.59
11–20 cigarettes per day 9.6 5.06
21 or more cigarettes per day 1.05 1.18
Birth weight (mean (sd)) Grams 3512 (581) 3541 (542) 0.355
  1. aPrimary characteristics used to match ASD cases and controls
  2. bSecondary characteristics used to match ASD cases and controls as closely as possible. There was a significant difference in maternal smoking rates between ASD cases and controls