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Table 1 Human pattern recognition receptors and cell types involved in antifungal immune responses (reviewed in [1])

From: Antifungal immune responses: emerging host–pathogen interactions and translational implications

Fungal pathogen Routes of infection Key PAMPs PRRs Cell types that express PRRs
Candida albicans Intestine, skin, mucosal surfaces β-1,3-glucan, O-mannan, N-mannan, chitin, mannose TLRs (− 2, −4), CLRs (dectin-1, − 2, mincle [7], MR, DC-SIGN, Mcl), NLRs (NLRP3, 4,10), CR3, FcγR, galectin-3, MDA5 Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, mast cells, subset of T cells, B cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, gut resident CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes [7]
Aspergillus fumigatus Lung β-1,3-glucan, chitin, galactomannan, DHN-melanin [2] TLR2, CLRs (dectin-1, − 2, mincle, DC-SIGN), NLRs (NOD1, NLRP3), CR3, PTX3 [3,4,5], MelLec [2] Airway epithelial cells, CCR2+ monocytes [9], macrophages, dendritic cells [5], T and B cells, endothelial cells
Cryptococcus neoformans Lung Mannose, capsular polysaccharide, glucuronoxylomannan TLRs (−2,-4), CLRs (dectin-2, MR), NLRs (NLRP3) Macrophages, endothelial cells
  1. CLR C-type lectin receptor, CR3 complement receptor 3, Fcγ receptor, NLR NOD-like receptor, MR mannose receptor, MDA5 Melanoma differentiation factor 5, PAMPs pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PRRs pattern recognition receptors