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Table 1 Immune checkpoint molecules being targeted by therapeutics for cancer, infectious disease, or autoimmunity

From: Recent advances in immunotherapies: from infection and autoimmunity, to cancer, and back again

Checkpoint molecule Biological role Therapeutic Disease Reference
CTLA-4 Inhibits TCR/CD28 signaling. Ipilimumab Malignancy Schadendorf et al. 2015 [93]
Limits primary T cell activation. Tremelimumab Malignancy Ribas et al. 2013 [94]
   Chronic infection Sangro et al. 2013 [95]
  Abatacept Autoimmune disease Kremer et al. 2006 [96]
PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibits TCR/CD28 -signaling via
ITIM and ITSM. Limits T e ffector
function.
Nivolumab Malignancy Topalian et al. 2012 [49]
Pembrolizumab Malignancy Reck et al. 2016 [97]
Avelumab Malignancy Kaufman et al. 2016 [98]
Atezolizumab Malignancy Rittmeyer et al. 2017 [99]
TIGIT Inhibits CD226 co-stimulation
via ITIM. Limits T cell e ffector
function.
OMP-31 M32 Malignancy NCT03 119,428
MTIG7192 A Malignancy NCT03563716
BMS-986207 Malignancy NCT02913313
Tim3 (HAVCR2) Negatively regulates TCR/CD28
signaling. Limits T cell activation.
Ly3321367 Malignancy NCT03099109
MBG453 Malignancy NCT02608268
TSR-022 Malignancy NCT02817633
Sym023 Malignancy NCT03489343
LAG-3 Negatively regulates TCR signaling.
Limits T cell proliferation.
BMS-986016 Malignancy NCT01968109
TSR-033 Malignancy NCT03250832
MGD013 Malignancy NCT03219268
Sym022 Malignancy NCT03489369
IMP321 Malignancy NCT02676869
GSK2831781 Autoimmunity NCT02195349