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Table 3 Potential target proteins and pathways identified in recent studies of protozoan pathogens

From: Advances in omics-based methods to identify novel targets for malaria and other parasitic protozoan infections

Parasite Potential target Pathway Parasite stage(s) at which target can be inhibited Function
Plasmodium Translation elongation factor 2 [24] Protein synthesis [28] Blood, liver, gametocytes Mediates GTP-dependent ribosome translocation along mRNA [28]
Phenylalanine tRNA synthetase [22] Protein translation Blood, liver, gametocytes Catalyzes the attachment of amino acids to tRNA [29]
β2 subunit of the proteasome [30] Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway Blood, liver, gametocytes Catalyzes protein degradation [31]
Farnesyltransferase [32] Enables cell cycle progression Blood, liver Adds a farnesyl group to the carboxyl terminus of specific proteins [33]
Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 [32] Hemoglobin catabolism Blood Cleaves amino acids from proteins or oligopeptides [34]
Aminophospholipid-transporting P-type ATPase [32] Maintenance of cell membrane potential Blood, liver Phospholipid transport [35]
Thymidylate synthase [32] DNA synthesis Blood Folate biosynthesis
Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase [36, 37] Phosphorylation-dependent signaling Blood, gametocytes Enables parasite egress from and invasion of red blood cells [38]
Calcium-dependent protein kinase 5 [36] Calcium regulation Blood Critical for parasite egress from red blood cells [39]
  Cyclin-dependent-like kinase 3 [40] Gene expression Blood, liver, gametocytes Plays a role in mRNA splicing [40]
Trypanosoma β4 subunit of the proteasome [41] Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway Tissue and blood stage Catalyzes protein degradation
Peroxin interaction [42] Glycosomal biogenesis and import Blood stage Enables glucose metabolism
Leishmania β4 subunit of the proteasome [41] Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway Intracellular Catalyzes protein degradation
Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 [43] Control of transcription and cell division [44] Intracellular Precise role unclear
Toxoplasma Claudin-like apicomplexan microneme protein [45] Formation of tight junctions through which parasites enter host cells Tachyzoites Essential for the invasion of host cells