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Table 1 Comparison of key features of Klebsiella genomes from South and Southeast Asian sites

From: Genomic surveillance for hypervirulence and multi-drug resistance in invasive Klebsiella pneumoniae from South and Southeast Asia

 S AsiaSE Asiap value (adj)ORLCIUCI 
Species assignment102100     
K. pneumoniae100 (98%)87 (87%)0.0110.130.010.62*
K. variicola1 (1%)4 (4%)0.8384.180.40209.04 
K. quasipneumoniae ssp. quasipneumoniae1 (1%)0 (0%)nananana 
K. quasipneumoniae ssp. similipneumoniae0 (0%)9 (9%)nananana 
Features of K. pneumoniae sensu stricto
Sequence type assignment10087     
  ST1511 (11%)15 (17%)1.1581.680.674.32 
  ST1416 (16%)2 (2%)0.0080.120.010.56**
  ST232 (2%)12 (14%)0.0157.761.6573.39*
  ST23117 (17%)0 (0%)5.14 × 10−50.000.00.24**
Capsular serotype prediction7987     
  KL12 (2.5%)13 (15%)0.0126.701.4463.22*
  KL24 (5.1%)11 (13%)0.2162.700.7612.15 
Antimicrobial resistance prediction10087     
  Multi-drug resistant (≥ 3 acquired classes)81 (81%)44 (51%)1.06 × 10−40.240.120.48**
  Aminoglycosides76 (76%)41 (47%)0.0010.280.140.55**
  Fluoroquinolones80 (80%)39 (45%)7.13 × 10−60.210.100.41**
  Phenicols27 (27%)25 (29%)7.8331.090.552.17 
  Sulfonamides63 (63%)42 (48%)0.4930.550.291.02 
  Tetracyclines24 (24%)39 (45%)0.0292.561.325.05*
  Trimethoprim62 (62%)38 (44%)0.1180.480.250.89 
  3rd-generation cephalosporins (ESBL)60 (60%)41 (47%)0.9490.600.321.11 
  Carbapenems47 (47%)1 (1%)7.13 × 10−130.010.00.08**
Virulence prediction10087     
  Yersiniabactin (ybt)65 (65%)46 (53%)0.2050.610.321.13 
  Aerobactin (iuc)27 (27%)32 (37%)0.3191.570.813.07 
Iuc lineages10087     
  iuc 113 (13%)27 (31%)0.0122.991.366.86*
  iuc 30 (0%)5 (6%)0.061na1.08inf 
  iuc 512 (12%)0 (0%)0.0010.000.00.8**
AMR and virulence convergence10087     
  ESBL and ybt45 (45%)26 (30%)0.1440.520.270.99 
  ESBL and iuc16 (16%)1 (1%)0.0010.060.00.41**
  CP and ybt37 (37%)1 (1%)1.79 × 10− 100.020.00.13**
  CP and iuc13 (13%)0 (0%)nana0.00.34 
  1. *South (S) Asia is represented by the two sites in India and Nepal, isolated 2016–2017; Southeast (SE) Asia is represented by the sites in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, isolated 2015–2016. p values were calculated using Fisher’s exact test for differences in the prevalence of each feature (in rows) for the S vs SE Asia samples and are adjusted using Bonferroni correction for the number of tests within each group of comparisons (as labelled in italics; sample size for each are also in italics). na test not applicable (one or more values equal to zero). Inf infinity, OR odds ratio, LCI and UCI, lower and upper bounds for 95% confidence interval, respectively. *p < 0·05, **p < 0·01