Workflow for candidate gene identification. a Genes were selected as candidate therapeutic targets if tumor-exclusive, frequent HLA-presented peptides were detected and if the source genes were involved in ccRCC-enriched pathways in ccRCC cohort 1. The candidate genes were validated and further filtered in a second ccRCC cohort (KIRC) from TCGA, yielding 113 candidate genes. b Comprehensive characterization of the 113 candidates by GO annotation, metabolomics, and proteomics analyses. Selected candidates were further tested for their immunogenicity and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patient cohort 1. The blue, orange, and green colors indicate whether data was generated from ccRCC patient cohort 1, single cell proximal tubule sequencing , or from TCGA KIRC cohort, respectively.