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Table 1 Core symptoms and common characteristics of psychiatric disorders. Ticks and crosses correspond to characteristics commonly observed or absent in the given diagnosis, respectively

From: Translating insights from neuropsychiatric genetics and genomics for precision psychiatry

Diagnosis Symptoms Common characteristics
Psychosis Depression Cognitive deficits Childhood onset Late adolescence/early adulthood onset
Intellectual disability Severe deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive skills, usually established with an IQ score < 70.
Autism spectrum disorder Developmental disorders with abnormal verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. Symptoms range from moderate to severe.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Persistent patterns of inattention and/or hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, which disrupt social, academic or occupational functioning.
Schizophrenia Positive (hallucinations, delusions), negative (diminished emotional expression), cognitive decline, disorganized thinking.
Bipolar disorder Episodes of extreme high (mania) and low (depression) moods.
Major depressive disorder Persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness. Inability to concentrate and diminished interest in most activities.