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Table 3 Absolute number of overlapping CpGs and P values for the enrichment of significant CpGs from previous EWASs (N > 1000) in our data

From: DNA methylation and body mass index from birth to adolescence: meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies

Previous study (N sites associated with BMI) Significance level Analysis A: association of cord blood DNA methylation with early childhood BMI (2–5 years) Analysis B: association of cord blood DNA methylation with late childhood BMI (5–10 years) Analysis C: cross-sectional analysis of whole blood DNA methylation with childhood BMI (2–10 years) Analysis D: cross-sectional analysis of whole blood DNA methylation with adolescent BMI (12–18 years)
  1 × 10−5 N = 7 N = 8 N = 51 N = 26
0.05 N = 22,687 N = 20,645 N = 37,074 N = 25,292
Ali et al. [56] (3 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0.05 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
1/3
Penrichment = 0.24
0
Penrichment = 1
Aslibekyan et al. [6] (8 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0.05 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
1/8
Penrichment = 0.51
2/8
Penrichment = 0.08
Campanella et al. [57] (26 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
1/26
Penrichment = 0.002
0.05 3/26
Penrichment = 0.16
1/26
Penrichment = 0.72
6/26
Penrichment = 0.02
11/26
Penrichment = 1.006 × 10−7
Geurts et al. [58] (310 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
2/310
Penrichment = 0.0006
2/310
Penrichment = 0.0002
0.05 12/310
Penrichment = 0.90
13/310
Penrichment = 0.73
103/310
Penrichment = 3.92 × 10−34
125/310
Penrichment = 6.63 × 10−70
Mendelson et al. [9] (83 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
2/83
Penrichment = 4.67 × 10−5
3/83
Penrichment = 1.81 × 10−8
0.05 4/83
Penrichment = 0.64
8/83
Penrichment = 0.045
28/83
Penrichment = 1.36 × 10−10
45/83
Penrichment = 3.02 × 10−33
Sayols-Baixeras et al. [59] (96 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0.05 8/96
Penrichment = 0.13
9/96
Penrichment = 0.04
24/96
Penrichment = 1.53 × 10−6
30/96
Penrichment = 1.85 × 10−14
Sun et al. [26] black participants (36 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
1/36
Penrichment = 0.002
0.05 3/36
Penrichment = 0.30
6/36
Penrichment = 0.007
13/36
Penrichment = 4.98 × 10−6
22/36
Penrichment = 1.50 × 10−18
Sun et al. [26] white participants (349 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0.05 12/349
Penrichment = 0.959
22/349
Penrichment = 0.12
86/349
Penrichment = 4.13 × 10−19
116/349
Penrichment = 1.75 × 10−54
Wahl et al. [5] (187 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
2/187
Penrichment = 0.0002
3/187
Penrichment = 2.10 × 10−7
0.05 8/187
Penrichment = 0.77
11/187
Penrichment = 0.29
61/187
Penrichment = 1.97 × 10−20
77/187
Penrichment = 1.68 × 10−44
Wang et al. [25] (54 CpGs) 1 × 10−5 0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
0
Penrichment = 1
1/54
Penrichment = 0.003
0.05 2/54
Penrichment = 0.79
4/54
Penrichment = 0.26
23/54
Penrichment = 2.49 × 10−11
33/54
Penrichment = 3.98 × 10−27
N CpGs in ≥ 2 adult studies 0.05 9/52 (17.3%) 23/75 (30.7%) 98/347 (28.2%) 163/465 (35.1%)
  1. Two cutoffs were used to select the significant findings in our results: a P value < 1 × 10−5, to identify “suggestive” findings, and a less stringent, nominal P value < 0.05, to identify any trends. We used a hypergeometric test to calculate enrichment with the phyper function in the R Stats package in R. Results in bold are nominally significant. Of those findings from adult studies that had a nominal P value (< 0.05) in our models, 17–35% were reported by more than one adult study
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