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Table 1 Glossary of cloud computing terms

From: Towards a European health research and innovation cloud (HRIC)

ApplicationA set of programs running on one or more computers allowing a user to perform a set of tasks
Cloud applicationAn application running in the cloud
Cloud computingThe delivery of IT services over a network (e.g., the internet) by means of a combination of infrastructure, software, and data hosted by one or more cloud providers using a service model similar to that used by traditional utility companies (e.g., water or electricity)
Cloud federationThe combination of infrastructure, software, and services from separate networks and providers, having shared access mechanisms, to perform common actions, achieve load-balancing or optimize availability or costs
Cloud instanceA virtual server or container of resources running on a physical host computer possibly hosting several independent instances (see virtualization)
Cloud marketplaceAn online marketplace of cloud services and applications operated by a Cloud Service Provider (CSP)
Cloud service provider (CSP)A company or public entity that offers cloud services to individual users or other entities
Cloud storageA model of data storage in which data are hosted across one or more facilities by a hosting entity or CSP and remotely accessed by users over the internet
ContainerA type of virtualized instance running on a physical host server in isolated user spaces and possibly preloaded with applications
Hybrid cloudA cloud computing infrastructure comprised of a mix of public and private cloud and on-premise instances and resources
InfrastructureThe combination of hardware resources (network, computing, storage, etc.) and virtualized instances supporting an IT environment
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)A model of cloud computing in which a CSP provides an infrastructure of virtualized resources to users as a service over a network (e.g., the internet)
On-premiseReferring to infrastructure or software that is run on computing resources that are physically hosted by the entity using them
PlatformA computer system on which applications can run on or can be built
Platform as a Service (PaaS)A model of cloud computing in which a CSP provides the infrastructure and the platforms where users can run and manage their own applications as a service over a network (e.g., the internet)
Private cloudA cloud infrastructure used by a single organization either on-premise or hosted by a third-party CSP over the internet or dedicated private networks
Public cloudA cloud infrastructure hosted by a CSP (or a federation) and used by the public or multiple organizations across the internet
Software as a Service (SaaS)A model of cloud computing in which a CSP hosts and provides applications (software) to users as a service over a network (e.g., the internet)
VirtualizationA technology that allows users to run a software simulation of a physical computer on which a full operating system and applications can be installed