Skip to main content

Table 2 gSOS is associated with fracture in addition to FRAX-CRF and FRAX-BMD. Odds ratios associated with risk predictors of interest were based on logistic regression

From: Improved prediction of fracture risk leveraging a genome-wide polygenic risk score

Cohort UK Biobank test dataset (N = 4717)* MrOS US (N = 4663) MrOS Sweden (N = 1880) SOF (N = 3615)
Model Odds ratio (95% CI)     
Major osteoporotic fracture
 Fracture ~ FRAX-CRF FRAX-CRF§ 1.15 (1.10–1.20) 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 1.04 (1.02–1.06) 1.04 (1.03–1.05)
 Fracture ~ FRAX-CRF + gSOS FRAX-CRF 1.14 (1.09–1.19) 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 1.04 (1.02–1.06) 1.04 (1.03–1.05)
gSOS 1.41 (1.18–1.69) 1.36 (1.24–1.49) 1.39 (1.23–1.58) 1.30 (1.19–1.42)
 Likelihood ratio test p value   1.4 × 10−4 3.1 × 10−11 6.9 × 10−8 2.5 × 10−9
 Fracture ~ age + sex + BMD BMD 1.66 (1.35–2.05) 1.79 (1.64–1.97) 1.86 (1.62–2.15) 2.02 (1.80–2.27)
 Fracture ~ age + sex + BMD + gSOS BMD 1.53 (1.24–1.90) 1.72 (1.56–1.89) 1.79 (1.55–2.07) 1.93 (1.72–2.17)
gSOS 1.33 (1.11–1.59) 1.22 (1.11–1.34) 1.29 (1.14–1.47) 1.22 (1.11–1.33)
 Likelihood ratio test p value   2.4 × 10−3 3.4 × 10−5 6.0 × 10−5 2.1 × 10−5
 Fracture ~ FRAX-BMD FRAX-BMD§ 1.17 (1.12–1.22) 1.10 (1.08–1.12) 1.07 (1.05–1.08) 1.06 (1.05–1.07)
 Fracture ~ FRAX-BMD + gSOS FRAX-BMD 1.16 (1.11–1.21) 1.09 (1.08–1.11) 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 1.06 (1.05–1.07)
gSOS 1.34 (1.12–1.60) 1.28 (1.17–1.40) 1.33 (1.18–1.51) 1.22 (1.12–1.34)
 Likelihood ratio test p value   1.5 × 10−3 1.5 × 10−7 4.5 × 10−6 1.1 × 10−5
Hip fracture
 Fracture ~ FRAX-CRF FRAX-CRF   1.06 (1.04–1.09) 1.02 (0.98–1.05) 1.05 (1.04–1.06)
 Fracture ~ FRAX-CRF + gSOS FRAX-CRF   1.06 (1.04–1.09) 1.02 (0.98–1.05) 1.05 (1.04–1.06)
gSOS   1.36 (1.20–1.54) 1.25 (1.04–1.50) 1.31 (1.19–1.44)
 Likelihood ratio test p value    1.1 × 10−6 1.6 × 10−2 4.2 × 10−8
 Fracture ~ age + sex + BMD BMD   2.08 (1.83–2.38) 2.45 (1.96–3.08) 2.04 (1.80–2.32)
 Fracture ~ age + sex + BMD + gSOS BMD   2.01 (1.76–2.31) 2.41 (1.92–3.04) 1.95 (1.72–2.22)
gSOS   1.17 (1.03–1.33) 1.11 (0.92–1.34) 1.20 (1.08–1.32)
 Likelihood ratio test p value    1.7 × 10−2 2.7 × 10−1 3.7 × 10−4
 Fracture ~ FRAX-BMD FRAX-BMD   1.10 (1.08–1.13) 1.06 (1.04–1.09) 1.07 (1.05–1.08)
 Fracture ~ FRAX-BMD + gSOS FRAX-BMD   1.10 (1.07–1.12) 1.06 (1.04–1.09) 1.06 (1.05–1.08)
gSOS   1.31 (1.15–1.48) 1.20 (1.00–1.44) 1.25 (1.13–1.37)
 Likelihood ratio test p value    3.0 × 10−5 5.3 × 10−2 1.1 × 10−5
  1. *Only 4717 individuals in the UK Biobank had measured femoral neck BMD and were included; 125 individuals experienced incident major osteoporotic fracture; only one individual experienced incident hip fracture; thus, model comparison was not conducted
  2. §Based on one unit (percent of 10-year fracture probability) increase in FRAX-CRF or FRAX-BMD
  3. Based on one standard deviation decrease in measured femoral neck BMD