Antibiotic (MIC breakpoint mg/L) | Genetic AMR determinants | Effect | Evidence (references) |
---|---|---|---|
Azithromycin (R: MIC>1, ECOFF) | 23S rDNA 2045A>G substitution (2059A>G in E. coli) | R | [75] |
23S rDNA 2597C>T substitution (2611C>T in E. coli) | R | [88] | |
ermA, ermB, ermC, ermF genes | R | [89, 90] | |
ereA, ereB genes | R | [22] | |
mefA gene | R | [90, 91] | |
macAB promoter -48G>T substitution^{a} | R | [92] | |
mtrR promoter mosaic^{b} | |||
N. meningitidis-like mosaic (n = 1) | R | [23] | |
N. lactamica-like mosaic (n = 2) | R | [23] | |
mtrD mosaic^{b} | |||
N. meningitidis-like mosaic (n = 1) | R | [23] | |
N. lactamica-like mosaic (n = 2) | R | [23] | |
mtrR promoter -57delA^{a} | A | [93, 94] | |
mtrR G45D | A | [95, 96] | |
mtrC loss-of-function | N | [26] | |
rplV ARAK tandem duplication (position 90) | R | [18] | |
rplV KGPSLK tandem duplication (position 83) | R | [18] | |
rplD G70D | A | [25] | |
Ceftriaxone^{c} (R: MIC>0.125) | penA mosaic (A311V, I312M, V316P/T, T483S and G545S) | R | [97, 98, 100] |
penA V316P, T483S, A501P/V, G542S | R | [97, 100] | |
rpoB P157L, G158V, R201H | R | [21] | |
rpoD D92–95 deletion, E98K | I | [21] | |
Cefixime^{c} (R: MIC>0.125) | mtrR G45D | A | [95, 96] |
penA mosaic (I312M, V316T, G545S) | R | [97, 98, 100] | |
penA mosaic (A311V, I312M, V316P/T, T483S and G545S) | R | [97, 98, 100] | |
penA V316P, T483S, A501P | I | [97, 100] | |
rpoB P157L, G158V, R201H | I | [21] | |
rpoD D92-95 deletion, E98K | I | [21] | |
Ciprofloxacin (I: 0.03<MIC≤0.06; R: MIC>0.06) | gyrA S91F, D95A/N | R | [99] |
gyrA D95G | I | [99] | |
norM promoter -7A>G, -104C>T substitutions^{a} | I | [101] | |
parC D86N, S87R | R | [99] | |
parC S87I/N, S88P, E91K | I | [99] | |
parE G410V | I | [102] | |
Tetracycline^{d} (I: 0.5<MIC≤1; R: MIC>1) | mtrR A39T, G45D | A | [95, 96] |
mtrR loss-of-function | I | [22] | |
mtrR promoter -56A>C substitution, -57delA deletion^{a} | I | [23, 93, 94] | |
mtrR promoter -131G>A (mtrC -120G>A substitution, mtr120)^{a} | I | [95] | |
rpsJ V57M | I | [103] | |
tetM gene | R | [104] | |
Penicillins (I: 0.06<MIC≤1; R: MIC>1) | blaTEM gene | R | [105] |
mtrR G45D | I | [95, 96] | |
mtrR A39T | A | [95] | |
mtrR loss-of-function | I | [22] | |
mtrR promoter -56A>C, -57delA^{a} | I | [23, 94] | |
mtrR promoter -131G>A (mtrC -120G>A substitution, mtr120)^{a} | I | [95] | |
penA I312M, V316P/T, ins346D, T483S, A501P/T/V, G542S, G545S, P551S | I | [97, 100] | |
penA mosaic (I312M, V316T, G545S) | A | [97, 98, 100] | |
ponA1 L421P | I | [106] | |
porB1b G120K, A121N/D | I | [107] | |
Spectinomycin (R: MIC>64) | 16S rDNA 1184C>T (1192C>T in E. coli) | R | [108] |
rpsE T24P | R | [109] | |
rpsE V27- deletion, K28E | R/A | [109] | |
Sulfonamides^{e} | folP R228S | R | [22, 110] |