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Table 2 Breast cancer risk factors and antibiotic use in patients recruited at the Cleveland Clinic

From: Human breast microbiome correlates with prognostic features and immunological signatures in breast cancer

Variable Cancer
(n = 48)
High-risk
(n = 7)
Healthy control
(n = 11)
p-value
Age at menarche (years) 13 (12–13) 12 (12–13) 11 (10–12) 0.230
Postmenopausal 28 (58%) 5 (71%) 4 (36%) 0.367
Gravity/parity 2 (1–3.8)/2 (1–3) 2 (1–3)/2 (0–3) 1.5 (0–2.5)/1 (0–2.3) 0.309/0.397
OCP or HRT usea 33 (69%) 6 (100%) 4 (57%) 0.248
Family history of breast cancera 26 (54%) 4 (67%) 0 (0%) 0.001
Alcohol usea     0.421
 Frequent 19 (40%) 2 (28.5%) 4 (40%)  
 Occasional 12 (25%) 2 (28.5%) 5 (50%)  
 None 17 (35%) 3 (43%) 1 (10%)  
Last oral antibiotic usea     0.985
 < 1 month ago 6 (17%) 1 (17%) 2 (20%)  
 1–6 months ago 12 (34%) 2 (33%) 4 (40%)  
 > 6 months ago 17 (49%) 3 (50%) 4 (40%)  
  1. Data are presented as number of patients (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. aMissing data: OCP or HRT use (n = 5), family history (n = 1), alcohol use (n = 1), and antibiotic use (n = 15). Percentages are calculated from the total number of patients with known values
  3. OCP, oral contraceptive pill; HRT, hormone replacement therapy