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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia patients and control participants

From: An epigenetic and transcriptomic signature of immune tolerance in human monocytes through multi-omics integration

  CAP patients Control subjects P value
Size, n 75 41  
Demographics
Age, year, mean (SD) 70.67 (13.31) 69.37 (8.60) 0.574d
Sex, male, n (%) 41 (54.7) 24 (58.5) 0.837c
Ethnicity, Caucasian, n (%) 53 (70.7) 36 (87.8) 0.063c
Body Mass Index, median [Q1, Q3] 25.93 [23.07, 28.41] 26.36 [24.74, 29.58] 0.177b
Chronic comorbidities, n (%)
COPD 26 (34.7) 4 (9.8) 0.007c
Cardiovascular disease 58 (77.3) 25 (61.0) 0.099c
Diabetes 19 (25.3) 4 (9.8) 0.077c
Malignancy 20 (26.7) 8 (19.5) 0.526c
Chronic renal disease 7 (9.3) 1 (2.4) 0.309c
Immunosuppressiona 4 (5.3) 2 (4.9) 0.99c
Disease severity, median [Q1, Q3]
PSI score 4.00 [3.00, 4.00]  
SOFA score 0.00 [0.00, 1.00]  
Causal pathogen, n (%)   
Streptococcus pneumoniae 10 (13.33)  
Haemophilus influenzae 7 (9.33)  
Staphylococcus aureus 4 (5.33)  
Influenza A virus 6 (8)  
Influenza B virus 3 (4)  
Rhinovirus 3 (4)  
Coronavirus type NL63 1 (1.33)  
Respiratory syncytial virus 2 (2.67)  
Human metapneumovirus 2 (2.67)  
Parainfluenza virus 1–4 2 (2.67)  
No causative pathogen identified 39 (52)  
Outcome
ICU admission, n (%) 5 (6.7)  
Hospital LoS, days, median [Q1, Q3] 5.00 [3.00, 8.75]  
Hospital mortality, n (%) 1 (1.4)  
Day 28 mortality, n (%) 4 (6.1)  
  1. Definition of abbreviations: CAP community-acquired pneumonia, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PSI Pneumonia Severity Index, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ICU intensive care unit, LoS length of stay, and SD standard deviation of the mean. a Immunosuppression was defined by the use of methotrexate or prednisone (n=2) and/or positive human immunodeficiency virus (n=5). b Mann-Whitney U test; c chi-square test with Yates’ continuity correction; d Student t test